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FIRST@NEXTAPREVB FIRSTCNEXTDPREVE FIRSTFNEXTGPREVH FIRSTINEXTJPREVK FIRSTMPREVN FIRSTONEXTQ FIRSTRNEXTSPREVT FIRSTUNEXTVPREVW FIRSTYPREVZ FIRST] FIRST^NEXT` FIRSTaNEXTbPREVc FIRSTdNEXTePREVf FIRSTgNEXThPREVi FIRSTjNEXTkPREVl FIRSTmNEXTnPREVo FIRSTqPREVr FIRSTsNEXTu FIRSTvNEXTwPREVx FIRSTzPREV{ FIRST|NEXT~ FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRST FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRST PREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV 0Sentences #FH'9 'D,OED0<262,8,Sentences #FH'9 'D,OED~ *Verb to be  A9D  JCHF08267,14,Verb to be  A9D  JCHF~ *Verb to DO  A9D  J9ED08273,18,Verb to DO  A9D  J9ED .Verb to HAVE  A9D  JEDC0<274,19,Verb to HAVE  A9D  JEDCb! Nouns 'D#3E'! 0*280,26,Nouns 'D#3E'! " \Spelling Rules for Plurals BH'9/ %ED'! 'D,E90j283,29,Spelling Rules for Plurals BH'9/ %ED'! 'D,E9# RUncountable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'D:J1'DE9/H/)0`290,35,Uncountable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'D:J1'DE9/H/)$ nDefinite & Indefinite Articles #/H'* 'D*91JA H 'DFC1)v% &Pronouns 'D6E'&1 04294,45,Pronouns 'D6E'&1 X& DObject Pronouns 6E'&1 'DEA9HD (G^' JReflexive Pronouns 6E'&1 'D'F9C'3J)( @Making Questions *CHJF 'D#3&D)0N299,50,Making Questions *CHJF 'D#3&D)f* '3*9E'D'* How 0,315,58,'3*9E'D'* How r+ $some/(96 any/#J 02331,60,some/(96 any/#J , :Making Negative *CHJF 'DFAJ0H332,61,Making Negative *CHJF 'DFAJ d pTENSES 'D#2EF) Present Simple Tense 'DE6'19 'D(3J7 0~309,64,TENSES 'D#2EF) Present Simple Tense 'DE6'19 'D(3J7 6f "TENSES 'D#2EF) 6l "TENSES 'D#2EF) 6m "TENSES 'D#2EF) x  FIRST~  FIRST NEXT  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST PREV  FIRST PREV  FIRST NEXT  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST NEXT PREV  FIRST PREV  FIRSTg  FIRSTh NEXT  FIRST NEXT PREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTPREV FIRSTNEXT FIRSTNEXTPREVa FIRSTbNEXTcPREV1 FIRST2NEXT3PREV4 FIRST5NEXT6PREV7 FIRST9PREV: FIRST;NEXT<PREV= FIRST>NEXT?PREV@ FIRSTANEXTBPREVC FIRSTDNEXTEPREVF FIRSTGNEXTHPREVI FIRSTJNEXTKPREVL FIRSTMNEXTNPREVO FIRSTPNEXTQPREVR FIRSTTPREVU FIRSTVNEXTWPREVX FIRSTYNEXTZPREV[ FIRST\NEXT]PREV^ FIRST_NEXT`PREVa FIRSTbNEXTcPREVd FIRSTfPREVg FIRSTlPREVm2Imperatives 5J:) 'D#E1 0@349,89,Imperatives 5J:) 'D#E1 Fn2Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5) oLComparing Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'* 0Z353,93,Comparing Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'* u\ English Alphabetic 'D#(,/J) 'D%F,DJ2J) 0h426,2, English Alphabetic 'D#(,/J) 'D%F,DJ2J) {vas& & ..as E+DG E+D (('D6(7) not as& .as DJ3 E+DG E...0358,110,as& & ..as E+DG E+D (('D6(7) not as& .as DJ3 E+DG E... FIRSTNEXTPREV FIRSTNEXTPREVbActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHD0r373,123,Active & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHD.Prepositions -1HA 'D,10>386,134,Prepositions -1HA 'D,1<Question-Tags 'D#3&D) 'DE0JD)0L397,145,Question-Tags 'D#3&D) 'DE0JD):Conditional  if  DH 'D417J)0J400,148,Conditional  if  DH 'D417J)<Reported Speech 'DCD'E 'DEFBHD0L404,152,Reported Speech 'DCD'E 'DEFBHD\Countries and Nationalities 'D(D/'F H 'D,F3J'*0l425,162,Countries and Nationalities 'D(D/'F H 'D,F3J'*6"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6"TENSES 'D#2EF) n"TENSES 'D#2EF) 00346,86,TENSES 'D#2EF) vTransitive & Intransitive Verbs 'D#A9'D 'DD'2E) H 'D#A9...8Adverbs'D81HA ['D#-H'D] 0H359,109,Adverbs'D81HA ['D#-H'D] >Relative Pronouns 6E'&1 'DH5D0L419,49,Relative Pronouns 6E'&1 'DH5D6"TENSES 'D#2EF) n"TENSES 'D#2EF) 00309,69,TENSES 'D#2EF) :Parts of Speech #B3'E 'DCD'E0F256,4,Parts of Speech #B3'E 'DCD'EF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)  F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)  F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) !F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z#F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z%F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z'F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z)F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) +F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z-F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z/F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 1F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z3F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z5F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z7F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z9F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z;F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z=F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z?F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZAF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZCF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZEF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZGF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZIF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZKF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZMF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZOF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZQF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) SF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZUF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZWF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZYF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z[F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z]F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z_F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZaF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) cF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZeF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) gF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) iF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) kF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZmF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) oF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZqF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZsF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZuF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZwF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZyF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z{F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z}F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) ZF Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z!F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z#F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z%F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z'F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z)F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z+F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) Z-F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) /F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 1F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) 0R302,2, Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) NEXTPREVNEXTDCountable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'DE9/H/)0R282,28,Countable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'DE9/H/)PREVNEXT/ 00DTahomags/(0(z[ 0 "DTimes New Roman(0(z[ 0  DWingdingsRoman(0(z[ 0 0DArialngsRoman(0(z[ 0 "@ .  @n?" dd@  @@`` xD4K//      j &////,,()* +n -+.%/?1i2&3 4 586 7 8":0< B.C D.EUF GeH I J GM NO P QRS TJV9W4XZ\;^ _)`a1bc+efAjk lFmoS rlt3unwAxy zy ~1 X)  l [3   #;!^4  "1    58$&+( O.4}Yc7-4 (" 't:Fycq?0' ^  kD 0e0e     A@ A5% ))     ?1 d0u0@Ty2 NP'p<'pA)BCD|E||s " 0e@        @ABC DEEFGHIJK5%LMNOPQRSTUWYZ[ \]^_ `abN E5%  N E5%  N F   5%    !"?N@ABC DEFFGHIJK5%LMNOPQRSTUWYZ[ \]^_ `abp3f@8'ybq ʚ;k8ʚ;g4FdFd@z[ 0ppp@ <4ddddl 0/ <4BdBdl< 0Yw0___PPT10 w___PPT9w    ! " # $ % & ' ( * + , d f l m mnou{Br&@.&@.4@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ .@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@&@@@@@@&@&@&@@4@@&@@@@@@@&@H@@&@h@@@@ &@ @@@@@ &@ @@@@@@@@ &@ @@@@@@ &@ &@ &@ ^@@@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@@@@&@&@\@@@@&@N@@@&@&@&@t@@@@&@&@&@@@@&@Z@@@&@@@@&@@&@@&@@ &@ @!&@!@"&@"@@@#&@&@4@@$&@$@@@@@@@%&@%t@@@@E&@E@@@J&@J@@@G&@G@@@@@H&@H@@@@@I&@&&@&@@@(&@(`@@@)&@)t@@@@*&@*t@@@@&@:@@&@d@@@@&@d@@@@&@d@@@@&@@&@\@@@@+&@+v@@@@@,&@,v@@@@@-&@-x@@@@@@/&@0&@1&@3&@2&@2@@@@@@@@@;@;@<@<@KZ@@@L&@L@@@@@M&@N&@N4@@5&@5@6&@6V@@@7&@7@8&@8B@9&@9@:&@:D@@=&@=Z@@@B&@B4@@A&@C&@CZ@@@D&@D@@@@O&@O@@@@@@R&@Rj@@@@@P&@PX@@@Q&@Q"@S&@SX@@@T&@T"@U&@U@@@@V&@VX@@@W&@WT@@X&@XX@@@Y&@Y4@@Z&@ZX@@@[&@[4@@\&@\@@@@@@@@]&@]v@@@^&@_&@`&@`@@@@@@&@&@&@&@&@a&@a@@@@@@b&@b@@@@c&@c@@@d&@d`@@e&@e@@@ft@@@@fb@@@g^@@@@@g@@@@@@h^@@@@@h@@@@@@@i^@@@@@i@@@@@@@@j^@@@@@j@@@@@k&@k@@@@l&@l@@@@@m&@m@@@@@n&@n@@@@@@@o&@o @@@@@@@@p&@p@@@@q&@q@@@@r&@r@@@@s&@s@@@@t@@@@@@@tb@@@u@@@u@@@@@v@@@vP@@y@@@yD@@z@@@zD@@{@@@{D@@|@@@|D@@}@@@}D@@~@@@~4@@@@@D@@@@@D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@f@@@@@@f@@@&@L@@@&@&@@&@j@@@@&@<@@@@@@@@@@@&@*@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@&@&@@@@@@@&@&@&@@&@&@z@@@@@&@&@4@@?  %tRGRAMMAR BH'9/ 'DD:@@@@@@@@@@) 'D%F,DJ2J)@* &6 &6&6 Prepared by: Mulla (2002) May 2002 (version 0) Reference:  Grammar For All Levels By Adnan Naim.a""2"\5.F Main Menu 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J) L$$$$(English Alphabetic 'D#(,/J) 'D%F,DJ2J) Parts of Speech #B3'E 'DCD'E Sentences #FH'9 'D,OED Verb to BE  A9D  JCHF Verb to DO  A9D  J9ED Verb to HAVE  A9D  JEDC Nouns 'D#3E'! Countable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'DE9/H/) Spelling Rules for Plurals BH'9/ %ED'! 'D,E9 Uncountable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'D:J1 'DE9/H/) Definite & Indefinite Articles #/H'* 'D*91JA H 'DFC1) Pronouns 'D6E'&1 Object Pronouns 6E'&1 'DEA9HD (G Reflexive Pronouns 6E'&1 'D'F9C'3J) Relative Pronouns 6E'&1 'DH5D Making Questions *CHJF 'D#3&D) '3*9E'D'* How some/(96 any/#J Making Negative *CHJF 'DFAJ TENSES 'D#2EF) Present Simple Tense 'DE6'19 'D(3J7 Past Simple Tense 'DE'6J 'D(3J7 Future Simple Tense 'DE3*B(D 'D(3J7 Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ^PPPkPwPPF F F  F F F F F F $F$ (F( ,F, 0F0 4F4 8F8 v% U 0w& U 0' U 0U 0( U 0* U 0)+ U 0*<, U 0=ZU 0[nd U 0nf U 0l U 0U 0m U 0  $Past Continuous Tense 'DE'6J 'DE3*E1 Future Continuous Tense 'DE3*B(D 'DE3*E1 Present Perfect Tense 'DE6'19 'D*'E Past Perfect Tense 'DE'6J 'D*'E Future Perfect Tense 'DE3*B(D 'D*'E Present Perfect Continuous 'DE6'19 'D*'E 'DE3*E1 Imperatives 5J:) 'D#E1 Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5) Comparing Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'* Adverbs'D81HA 'D#-H'D Active & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHD Transitive & Intransitive Verbs 'D#A9'D 'DD'2E) H 'D#A9'D 'DE*9/J)... Prepositions -1HA 'D,1 Question-Tags 'D#3&D) 'DE0JD) Conditional  if  DH 'D417J) Reported Speech 'DCD'E 'DEFBHD Countries and Nationalities 'D(D/'F H 'D,F3J'* "F F F  F F F F F  F $F$ (F( ,F, 0F0 4F4 8F8        $$3((,,,,30044388883<<>     FClause & Phrase 'D,ED) H 4(G 'D,ED):$$$$A clause is a combination of words containing a verb and has a complete meaning. 'D,ED) GJ E,EH9) CDE'* *-*HJ 9DI A9D H DG' E9FI *'E. E+'D: I saw the man who was carrying a stick. A phrase is a combination of words forming part of the sentence but without a verb. 4(G 'D,ED) 9('1) 9F E,EH9) CDE'* *CHF ,2!'K EF 'D,ED) (/HF A9D. E+'D: I saw the man carrying a stick. $QP?P*PUPPIP!PP<  33UF  $$((((3,,300P<(U' *Verb to BE  A9D  JCHF: $ $$ It is used as a principal and a helping verb. J3*./E CA9D 1&J3J HE3'9/ : ^.- - *Verb to BE  A9D  JCHF: $ $$ <F3*./E 5J:) 'DE6'19 DD*9(J1 9F 9'/'* #H -B'&B +'(*). F3*./E 5J:) 'DE'6J DD*9(J1 9F 4J! -5D H'F*GI AJ 'DE'6J. :Examples #E+D) I am a pupil. They are boys.l49      33<49Negative Sentences with the verb to BE 'D,ED 'DEFAJ) ('DA9D  JCHF XE&((  '"We make negative statements with the verb to BE by using the word not after the verb to be. FCHF ,ED EFAJ) E9 A9D (JCHF) (H69 CDE) (9/G . (not) T\6B3/\/Making Questions with the verb to BE *CHJF 'D3$'D E9 A9D  JCHF TB$ (% Yes or  No questions and short answers 'D#3&D) ((F9E) H (D') H 'D%,'('* E.*51): 6*+*)*)*Verb to DO  A9D  J9ED: $ $$ It is used as a principal and a helping verb. J3*./E CA9D 1&J3J HA9D E3'9/ : F. - - .Verb to HAVE  A9D  JEDC:$ $$ It is used as a principal and a helping verb. J3*./E CA9D 1&J3J HA9D E3'9/ : P.(-  -(Negative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a main verb 'D,ED 'DEFAJ) E9 A9D  JEDC CA9D 1&J3JZ_%)  0%)Making Questions with the verb to HAVE as a main verb *CHJF 'D3$'D E9 A9D  JEDC CA9D 1&J3J J_6'$$6( lVerb to HAVE as a helping verb A9D  JEDC  CA9D E3'9/Z7  Verb to have is used as a helping verb to form the perfect tense. J3*./E A9D JEDC CA9D E3'9/ DJCHF 2EF 'DE6'19 'D*'E. #E+D): They have lived here for two years. Adel has just finished his work. B;EA$"    3 3  JA" DNegative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a helping verb 'D,ED 'DEFAJ) E9 A9D  JEDC CA9D E3'9/ :`7'7' D*CHJF FAJ E9 A9D JEDC F69 (9/ G0' 'DA9D. #E+D): I have lived here for a long time. I have not lived here for a long time. :L/3 *    3  d KMaking Questions with verb to HAVE as a helping verb *CHJF 'D3$'D E9 A9D  JEDC CA9D E3'9/:]5'5' Yes or  No questions and short answers 'D#3&D) (@ F9E H D' H 'D%,'('* E.*51): D*CHJF 3$'D E9 A9D JEDC CA9D E3'9/ FB/E G0' 'DA9D 9DI 'DA'9D. E+'D: They have lived here for a long time. Have they lived here for a long time? Yes, they have. No, they have not.*ky*k 333!33*kytOther Uses of Verb to HAVE '3*./'E'* #.1I E9 A9D  JEDC J;($$To express necessity in the present and past have to, has to, had to. DJ9(1 9F 'D61H1) AJ 'DE6'19 H 'DE'6J. E+'D: I have to leave now. ____________________________________________________ With some model auxiliaries. E9 (96 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5). E+'D: You had better see a doctor. ____________________________________________________ To show that something is caused by another person. DJ(JF #F 4J&'K E' -5D (H'37) 4.5 '.1. E+'D: I have my shoes cleaned every week. FZ-ZJZZZRZ4Z-Z$ZZ-- 3  5 3D4-    3  3    3  rF-R %Nouns 'D#3E'! :Nouns are words we use to name: 'D#3E'! GJ 'DCDE'* 'D*J F3*./EG' D0C1 : '3E  9DE  4.5  4J!  EC'F  #AC'1  49H1. V UT T~Countable & Uncountable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'DE9/H/) H :J1 'DE9/H/):@ !  ! Countable Nouns: are things that be counted as one, two, three, and so on. 'D#3E'! 'DE9/H/): GJ 'D#4J'! 'D*J JECF 9/G' (@ H'-/  '+F'F  +D'+) HGC0'. Uncountable Nouns: cannot be counted. 'D#3E'! 'D:J1 E9/H/): GJ 'D*J D' JECF 9/G' #J D' JECF H69 1BE B(DG'. KK'F< 9   0  dLL'+ DCountable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'DE9/H/):#$$$These nouns have singular and plural forms. G0G 'D#3E'! DG' 5J: EA1/) H ,E9. Before singular countable nouns you can use a/an. B(D 'D#3E'! 'DEA1/) 'DE9/H/) *3*7J9 '3*./'E . You cannot use singular countable nouns alone without words such as: a, an, one, my, your, his, etc. D' F3*7J9 '3*./'E #3E'! EA1/) E9/H/) (EA1/G' (/HF 'DCDE'* 'D3'(B). ,P!P3P;PGP PCPP+",3;    fB^+#2, fB!\Spelling Rules for Plurals BH'9/ %ED'! 'D,E9:/$$$We form plurals of most nouns by adding  s to the singular noun. FCHQF 'D,E9 EF E98E 'D#3E'! (%6'A) DD'3E 'DEA1/.  s y(3"  3 33D30B""\Spelling Rules for Plurals BH'9/ %ED'! 'D,E9:/$$$-@@@@@@@@@'D'* .'5@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) 'D#3E'! 'D*J *F*GJ ('D-1HA F6JA DG'@"@" ?a#\Spelling Rules for Plurals BH'9/ %ED'! 'D,E9:/$$$-@@@@@@@@@'D'* .'5@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) 'D#3E'! 'D*J *F*GJ (-1A H3(BG -1A 3'CF  *-0A HF6JA@"?" >`$\Spelling Rules for Plurals BH'9/ %ED'! 'D,E9:/$$$-@@@@@@@@@'D'* .'5@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) 'D#3E'! 'D*J *F*GJ (-1A H3(BG -1A 3'CF  F6JA@"3" 2T% \Spelling Rules for Plurals BH'9/ %ED'! 'D,E9:/$$$-@@@@@@@@@'D'* .'5@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) 'D#3E'! 'D*J *F*GJ (-1A #H F-HDG' %DI -1A  HF6JA@"G" Fh&!\Spelling Rules for Plurals BH'9/ %ED'! 'D,E9:/$$$t-@@@@@@@@@'D'* .'5@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) GF'C (96 'D#3E'! 'D4'0):D"ZZ" :("TUncountable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'D:J1 'DE9/H/):+$$$Uncountable nouns cannot be counted. GJ 'D*J D' ,E9 DG' (%6'A) #E+D@@@@@@): salt, coffee, tea, food, meat, gold, music, blood. D' *3*7J9 '3*./'E #H B(D 'D#3E'! 'D:J1 'DE9/H/) %Z(Z3ZIZZ$ 1          0$(4I)#TUncountable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'D:J1 'DE9/H/):+$$$'TUncountable Nouns 'D#3E'! 'D:J1 'DE9/H/):+$$$R,EJ9 'D#3E'! 'D:J1 'DE9/H/) *9'ED E9'ED) 'DEA1/. #E+D): Coffee is a traditional drink in Saudi Arabia. Milk has many minerals. H DCF DH H69* CDE'* */D 9DI 'DCEJ) B(D 'D'3E 'D:J1 E9/H/ A#FG J9'ED E9'ED) 'D,E9. Two cups of tea are not enough for me. Five liters of oil do not operate this machine.8HSW83+3R    3'    3  (8IRW*$nDefinite & Indefinite Articles #/H'* 'D*91JA H 'DFC1):8$$$a/an are used as indefinite articles. *3*./E'F C#/H'* FC1). The is used as definite articles. *3*./E C#/') DD*91JA. We put  a before a noun starting with a constant sound. F69 B(D 'D#3E'! 'D*J *(/# (-1A 3'CF. We put  an before a noun starting with a vowel sound. F69 B(D 'D#3E'! 'D*J *(/# (-1A E*-1C. wPP9P*P8P/P33!B B  B F3F3BBBBB B  F 30 B +$B$(B((F(3-(B(+,B,0B04B44B488!9+7++%XIndefinite Articles  a &  an #/H'* 'DFC1):-$$$We put  a before a noun starting with a constant sound. F69 B(D 'D#3E'! 'D*J *(/# (-1A 3'CF. We put  an before a noun starting with a vowel sound. F69 B(D 'D#3E'! 'D*J *(/# (-1A E*-1C. 'D-1HA 'DE*-1C) : Vowels a  e  i  o - u9P*P8P,PPPP30+3-*     X9+7*KEXIndefinite Articles  a &  an #/H'* 'DFC1):-$$$We use a/an:  ZZZZZZZ$$3$$    0 PJXIndefinite Articles  a &  an #/H'* 'DFC1):-$$$We DO NOT use a/an: ZZZZZZZ$$$$3$$    0MG\The Definite Article  The #/H'* 'D*91JA  #D :/$$$The is used before: *3*./E #/') 'D*91JA  #D B(D: ,ZPPPPPPPPF3BB(BB B BBB  $$((((lDNH\The Definite Article  The #/H'* 'D*91JA  #D :/$$$The is used before: *3*./E #/') 'D*91JA  #D B(D: ,ZPPPPPPPPF3BB(BB B BBB  $$((((lDOI\The Definite Article  The #/H'* 'D*91JA  #D :/$$$ ,&&Pronouns 'D6E'&1 0   A pronoun replaces a noun . 'D6EJ1 J-D E-D 'D'3E fFZZZ1  01.(&Pronouns 'D6E'&1 0   We use a pronouns instead of a noun when it is clear who or what we are talking about . F3*./E 'D6EJ1 (/D' EF 'D'3E 9F/E' FCHF 9DI 9DE E9 EF #H 9F #J 4J! F*-/+. Examples #E+D) Ali is a good student. He passes all his tests. X " J " EXI    3RXC 1/)DObject Pronouns 6E'&1 'DEA9HD (G:#$$$hWe use an object pronoun F3*./E 6EJ1 'DEA9HD (G . After a preposition. (9/ -1HA 'D,1 After to and for with verbs like make, give, send, lend, pass, take, show. "9&N    33(3,,  0P V0*JReflexive Pronouns 6E'&1 'D'F9C'3J):&   6Reflexive pronouns are used: F3*./E 6E'&1'D%F9C'3J). for emphasize DD*#CJ/ With some special expressions E9 (96 'D*9'(J1 'D.'5) =8   #,,  0  #>Relative Pronouns 6E'&1 'DH5D: $ $$ The relative pronouns are used to join sentences together. *3*./E 6E'&1 'DH5D D1(7 'D,ED (96G' ((96. H D1(7 'D,ED '*(9 'D.7H'* 'D"*J): 1- F(-+ 9F CDE) E*C11) AJ 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ) +E F(-+ 9F EHB9G'. A%0' C'F* A'9D'K 9'BD'K F3*9ED H%0' C'F* EA9HD'K (G 9'BD'K F3*9ED H F91A 0DC (H,H/ 'DCDE) (9/ 'DA9D. H %0' C'F* :J1 9'BD F3*9ED . #E' A*3*./E (/D #J CDE) EF 'DCDE'* 'D3'(B) %D' #FF' D' FA6D '3*9E'DG' AJ ,EJ9 'D,ED. H %0' C'F* DDEDCJ) F3*9ED CDE) . 2- '-0A 'DCDE) 'DE*C11) EF 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ) H69 'D'3E 'D0J -0A* E+DG AJ 'D,ED) 'D#HDI. d; " P " PP;  (;>Relative Pronouns 6E'&1 'DH5D: $ $$ *3*./E D*-D E-D 'DA'9D 'D9'BD H 7(9'K F91A 'DA'9D (H,H/G #HD 'D,ED). D'-8 'DE+'D 'D*'DJ: Here is the man. The man is a doctor. F-0A CDE) EF 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ) H F69 (/D'K EFG' +E F69 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ) (9/ 'DCDE) 'D*J -0AF' E+DG' AJ 'D,ED) 'D#HDI A*5(-: Here is the man who is a doctor. #E+D): 1) The man came here. The man was a doctor. The man who was here is a doctor 2) My friend swims well. He lives here. My friend who lives here swims well.,b " P' " P " P" " PPPb'3        7IHb'">Relative Pronouns 6E'&1 'DH5D: $ $$ .*3*9ED D*-D E-D 'DEA9HD (G 'D9'BD H 7(9'K F91A 'DEA9HD (G (H,H/G (9/ 'DA9D. D'-8 'DE+'D 'D*'DJ: The man came here. I visited him. F-0A CDE) EF 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ) +E F69 #HD 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ)  HF69 'D'3E 'DEH5HD H 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ) (9/ 'DCDE) 'D*J -0AF' E+DG' ('D*J J9H/ %DJG' 'D6EJ1) A*5(-: The man whom I visited came here. #E+D): 1) The man was working with me. I paid him. The man whom I paid was working with me. 2) This is the girl. You gave her a flower. This is the girl whom you gave a flower.,l " P# " P " P# " PPPl#3        7\Hl##>Relative Pronouns 6E'&1 'DH5D: $ $$ *3*9ED D*-D E-D 'DA'9D #H 'DEA9HD 'D:J1 9'BD H 7(9'K F91A 'DA'9D (H,H/G #HD 'D,ED) #E' 'DEA9HD (G AJH,/ (9/ 'DA9D. D'-8 'DE+'D 'D*'DJ: He found his book. He lost it yesterday. F1I #F CDE) *9H/ 9DI CDE) AF-0AG' H F69 (/D'K EFG' AJ #HD 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ) +E F69 'D'3E 'DEH5HD H 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ) (9/ 'DCDE) 'D*J -0AF' E+DG' ('D*J J9H/ %DJG' 'D6EJ1) A*5(-: He found his book which he lost yesterday. #E+D): 1) This is the house. I live in it. This is the house which I live in. 2) This book is cheap. It is very useful. This book which is very useful is cheap., " P+ " P " P, " PPP+3        8CH+,>Relative Pronouns 6E'&1 'DH5D: $ $$ *3*9ED D*-D E-D 'DA'9D #H 'DEA9HD (G 'D9'BD H :J1 9'BD #J *-D E-D #J #/') 3(B 41-G'. D'-8 'D#E+D) 'D*'DJ): This is the boy. You met her. This is the boy that (whom) you met. I have a bird. It sings. I have a bird that (which) sings. w " Z " ZZw1 3 w>Relative Pronouns 6E'&1 'DH5D: $ $$ *3*9ED DDEDCJ). D'-8 'DE+'D 'D*'DJ: This is the man. His car hit the boy. This is the man whose his car hit the boy. GF' F,/ #F CDE) EEDHC) D@ AF-0A 6EJ1 'DEDCJ) H F69 (/D'K EFG 'D'3E 'DEH5HD +E F69 (9/G' CDE) .0 " T "  " .9H " BB0TH@1+@Making Questions *CHJF 'D#3&D)H!  ((D*-HJD 'D,ED) 'D.(1J) %DI 3$'D F69 'DA9D 'DE3'9/ AJ 'D(/'J): 'D#A9'D 'DE3'9/) GJ: Helping Verbs am  is  are  was  were  have  has  had  will  would  shall  should  can  could  may  might  must  ought to #E+D@@@@@@@@@): They are doctors. Are they doctors? She can help us? Can they help us? I will go to the market? Will you go to the market?JcP|PPP?  ~3 33 333  \? ~2,@Making Questions *CHJF 'D#3&D)H!  ((%0' DE JCF ('D,ED) A9D E3'9/ 1) E9 'DA9D 'DE6'19 (/HF F3*./E : #E+D@@@@@@@@@): They play tennis. Do they play tennis? I write books. Do you write books? 2) E9 'DA9D 'DE6'19 'D0J (G F3*./E : #E+D@@@@@@@@@): PAhmed plays tennis. Does Ahmed play tennis? Huda watch TV. Does Huda watch TV? PDPNPJPUPB    3    3    3    3    3    3  F3 33333  \BRFS3-@Making Questions *CHJF 'D#3&D)H!  ((|%0' DE JCF ('D,ED) A9D E3'9/ 3) E9 'DA9D 'DE'6J F3*./E : #E+D@@@@@@@@@): They watched TV last night. Did they watch TV last night? I played football yesterday. Did you play football yesterday? ED'-8@@@@@@@@): ,EJ9 'D#3&D) 'D3'(B) *CHF %,'(*G' (@ #H H 0DC D#FG' DE *(/# (#/') 3$'D. P8PPPP"PoP6    3    3    3        3    3    3    B&    p6}?6/@Making Questions *CHJF 'D#3&D)H!  ((70@Making Questions *CHJF 'D#3&D)H!  ((81`Steps for Making a Question .7H'* *CHJF 'D3$'DX1 ( $$;3`Steps for Making a Question .7H'* *CHJF 'D3$'DX1 ( $$92`Steps for Making a Question .7H'* *CHJF 'D3$'DX1 ( $$@ ED'-8): D'-8 *:JJ1 (96 'D6E'&1 DCJ **F'3( E9 'DE9FI E+D: I *5(- you you *5(- I your *5(- my you *5(- we %0' C'F 'D3$'D 9F 'DA'9D D' F3*./E A9D'KKKKK E3'9/'K EF 9F/F' (D F69 #/') 'D3$'D %0' C'F 'DA'9D 9'BD'K H %0' C'F 'DA9D :J1 9'BD'K. #E+D): Ahmed broke the window. Who broke the window? The book describes accidents. What describes accidents? .0PqP1  3  3 3  $$$$3$$$$3$$((,,,,3 ,,,,3,,004444388388<<3333 1  qC;'3*9E'D'* How :   (  "D<'3*9E'D'* How :   (  "QK$some/(96 any/#J z$$$  $$$ DRL:Making Negative *CHJF 'DFAJ:$ $$ D*-HJD 'D,ED) 'D.(1J) %DI FAJ F69 CDE) (9/ 'DA9D 'DE3'9/: 'D#A9'D 'DE3'9/) GJ: Helping Verbs am  is  are  was  were  have  has  had  will  would  shall  should  can  could  may  might  must  ought to #E+D@@@@@@@@@): They are happy. They are not happy? He can help us? He can not help us?.GPPPLPD   ~  $$$$3$$$$3 $$$$3$$$$3 $$dD ~MSM(Long forms & Short forms of Verb to be 6)&(0(Affirmative) AJ 'D%+('*\33333 TN:Making Negative *CHJF 'DFAJJ$$(( D%0' DE JCF AJ 'D,ED) A9D E3'9/ AF#*J (A9D E3'9/ EF 9F/F'. HG0G 'D#A9'D 'DE3'9/) GJ: +E F69 (9/G E9 ED'-8) %9'/) 'DA9D %DI #5DG #J 'D*51JA 'D#HD. ED'-8): %0' C'F* %-/I 'DCDE'* 'D"*J) AJ 'D,ED) AFFAJ 'D,ED) (FAJ 'DCDE) CE' AJ 'D,/HD 'D*'DJ: r#P  3W   ( a<5"TENSES 'D#2EF) >$$ <J3*./E G0' 'D2EF DD*9(J1 9F 'D9'/'* H 'D*B'DJ/ H 'DB/1'* H 'D-B'&B. J*CHF G0' 'D2EF EF 'D*51JA 'D#HD DDA9D #J 'DA9D 'DE,1/. J#*J G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E9 CDE'* E+D: @ " >6"TENSES 'D#2EF) B$$ #E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) I go to school everyday. They usually sleep at 11.00 p.m. We often drink coffee in the morning. She is never late to school. ED'-8): %0' C'F 'DA'9D EA1/ :'&( F6JA 2J'/) DDA9D. Ali drinks milk every morning. A cow gives us milk. " ~ " 6 " 4 "  3 3336  3 3 (}64?7"TENSES 'D#2EF) >$$ FJ3*./E G0' 'D2EF DD*9(J1 9F -/+ HB9 AJ 'DE'6J. J*CHF G0' 'D2EF EF 'D*51JA 'D+'FJ DDA9D #J %6'A) E9 ED'-8) 'D#A9'D 'D4'0). J#*J G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E9 CDE'* E+D: B " PP@8"TENSES 'D#2EF) B$$ rI, He, She, it was They, We, You were #E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) I watched television last night. They visited their uncle yesterday. We went to Makkah two months often. R2 "  "  " i "  " 2 3 3 3  3  2jA9"TENSES 'D#2EF) B$$ J3*./E G0' 'D2EF DD*9(J1 9F -/+ E*HB9 -/H+G AJ 'DE3*B(D. J*CHF G0' 'D2EF EF 'H +E 'D*51JA 'D#HD DDA9D. *#*J E9 6EJ1 'DE*CDE H #E' A*#*J E9 ('BJ 'D6E'&1. HDCF F/1 '3*./'EG' AJ 'D%F,DJ2J) 'D-/J+) HB/ -D* CDE) (/DG' E9 ,EJ9 'D6E'&1. J#*J G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E9 CDE'* E+D: <E " ZZDBBDB:"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ #E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) I will go to school tomorrow. They will play foot ball next Friday. He will join the army in the future. GF'C *CHJF #.1 DDE3*B(D 'D(3J7 ('3*./'E: am , is , are going to  " j " ) " / "      3*.  (j*.E="TENSES 'D#2EF) B$$ J3*./E G0' 'D2EF DD*9(J1 9F -/+ JB9 'D"F AB7 . J*CHF G0' 'D2EF EF : I am + verb + ing He, she, it is + verb + ing They, we, you are + verb + ing J#*J G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E9 CDE'* E+D : D " Z " Z# " Z " ZZ.BBB B "BB<."HB"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ #E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) I am reading a story at the moment. They are watching television now. Look! the bus is coming. " ` "   3  3   3_GA"TENSES 'D#2EF) >$$  (PPIC"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ J3*./E G0' 'D2EF DD*9(J1 9F A9D HB9 AJ 'DE'6J #+F'! HBH9 A9D #.1 . J*CHF G0' 'D2EF EF : J#*J G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E9 CDE'* E+D : ED-H8): G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E' J#*J E9G 2EF 'DE'6J 'D(3J7 H 'D0J *.DD 'DE'6J 'DE3*E1 #J 'D0J HB9 #+F'! -/H+G. Y " P " P " P " PPCBBB B BB<CJD"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ 6#E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) While I was sleeping , a thief entered my room. ((JFE' CF* F'&E'K  /.D D5 :1A*J) G0G 'D,ED) *-*HJ 9DI -/+JF #-/GE' E'6J E3*E1 HGH 'DFHE H'D".1 /.HD 'DD5 'D:1A) 'D0J -5D #+F'! 'DFHE . When we were eating , my father came . ( (JFE' CF' F#CD  ,'! H'D/J) G0G 'D,ED) *-*HJ 9DI -/+JF #-/GE' E'6J E3*E1 HGH 'D#CD H'D".1 E,J! H'D/J 'D0J -5D #+F'! 'D#CD .  " P2 " P " PC " P~ " P " P  33333        3    3  3  }3P2'}UO"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ #E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) ED'-8): JECF H69 #/') 'D1(7 H37 'D,ED) /HF #F J*:J1 'DE9FI A*5(- 'D,ED*'F 'D3'(B) CE' JDJ : A thief entered my room while I was sleeping . /.D D5 :1A*J (JFE' CF* F'&E'K My father came when we were eating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y 7.30 tomorrow, I will be flying to Cairo. They will be waiting for you at 5 o'clock .  " \ "  3 3  3\YS"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ ZJ3*./E G0' 'D2EF DD*9(J1 9F -/+ -5D AJ 'DE'6J H 'F*GI B(D D-8'* #H 'F*GI AJ 'DE'6J H D'2'D* "+'1G EH,H/) -*I 'D"F. J*CHF G0' 'D2EF EF: J#*J G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E9 CDE'* E+D :  " Z " Z% " ZZrBBB B %BB<r%ZT"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ p#E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) I have lived in Riyadh for six years. I have not visited him since 1995. Ahmed has already finished his homework. She has written three letters just now.  "  "   3  33 33  33[U"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ Since means  from some definite point or period n the past up to now *9FJ CDE)  EF0 '9*('1'K EF FB7) #H A*1) E-//) AJ 'DE'6J H -*I 'D"F. For means  a definite period of time *9FJ CDE)  DE/) 9DI A*1) 2EFJ). :F " PF " P& " P# " PPFAB BF6BB B F#B BFBBB B XFD& \V"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ J3*./E G0' 'D2EF DD*9(J1 9F -/+ -5D H 'F*GI AJ D-8) E' AJ 2EF 'DE'6J. J*CHF G0' 'D2EF EF: J#*J G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E9 CDE'* E+D : [ " Z " Z% " ZZFBBB B %BB<F%]W"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ R#E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) I had washed before I prayed. They went home after they had finished their work. Ahmed had eaten the cake which he bought. As soon as they had bought a car, they drove to Makkah. D'-8 #F G0' 'D2EF :'D('K E' J#*J E9G 2EF 'DE'6J 'D(3J7 'D0J -/+ (9/ 'F*G'! 'DE'6J 'D*'E.  "  " Z "   333 3  3 3  3 3 @    3  (X^X"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ J3*./E G0' 'D2EF DD*9(J1 9F -/+ E*HB9 -/H+G H 'F*G'$G AJ 2EF E' AJ 'DE3*B(D. J*CHF G0' 'D2EF EF: J#*J G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E9 CDE'* E+D : b " Z " Z% " ZZMBBB B %BB<M%_Y"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ #E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) By 2.00 this afternoon, I will have finished my work. At 10.00 tonight, she will have written five letters.  " r "  3 33q`Z"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ J3*./E G0' 'D2EF DD*9(J1 9F -/+ HB9 ,2! EFG H *E AJ 'DE'6J H DCFG E3*E1 -*I 'D"F. J*CHF G0' 'D2EF EF: J#*J G0' 'D2EF 9'/) E9 CDE'* E+D : g " Z " Z% " ZZRBBB B %BB<R%a["TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ #E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) I have been studying English for six years. She has been sleeping since 2 o clock.  " V "  3  3 3Ub\"TENSES 'D#2EF) 6$ $$ DCJ FA1B (JF 'DE6'19 'D*'E 'DE3*E1 H 'DE6'19 'D*'E : D'-8 'D#E+D) 'D*'DJ): Maha started making cakes three hours ago. There are now one hundred cakes on the table. EF G0G 'D,ED*JF FCHQF: Present Perfect Continuous Tense 'DE3*E1 'DE6'19 'D*'E She has been making cakes for three hours. Present Perfect Tense 'DE6'19 'D*'E She has made 100 cakes. bc " Z " ZZ " Z " Z=0" dZ, " Z)0" dZ " Z " ZbZ  %           3        $$(( ,, ,,,, 00 000030000004488dZ&,c]2Imperatives 5J:) 'D#E1 B $ $ Imperatives are verbs used at the beginning of sentences either in the affirmative or negative to indicate instructions, invitations, signs and notices or telling someone what to do. 5J:) 'D#E1 GJ #A9'D *3*./E AJ (/'J) 'D,ED #E' *CHF AJ 'D%+('* D*9(1 9F 'D*9DJE'*  'D/9HI  'D%4'1'* H 'DED'-8'* #H %.('1 4.5 E'0' JA9D. The Imperatives uses the simple form of the verb such as: walk, read, open,& .etc. *3*./E 5J:) 'D#E1 'D5J:) 'D(3J7) DDA9D #J 'D*51JA 'D#HD.  " Z " ZS " Z< " Z " Z 3R  9DR;d^2Imperatives 5J:) 'D#E1 B $ $  e_2Imperatives 5J:) 'D#E1 B $ $  f`2Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5) B$$A modal has only one form of the verb for all persons, but it can have several meanings and time frames, depending on the context in which it is used. 'DA9D 'DF'B5 DG 5J:) H'-/) E9 ,EJ9 'D#4.'5 HDCF DG 9/) E9'FJ H #4C'D 2EFJ) -3( 'DE-*HI 'D0J *3*./E AJG. Form 'D5J:) shall, should, will would, may, might, can, could, must, ought to + ('D*51JA 'D#HD DDA9D) Modals have no infinitives or past participles. DJ3 DDA9D 'DF'B5 E5/1 #H *51JA +'D+. 2PhPPZP1P'P " PBiBB B DFFF0BB B $$B$(B(,B,0B0i D1$2Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5) B$$2Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5) B$$2Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5) B$$2Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5) B$$2Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5) B$$gaDComparing Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'*4#$$D1. 'DEB'1F) (JF 4J&JF #H 4.5JF: AJ G0' 'DFH9 EF 'DEB'1F) FD'-8 %6'A) 'DD'-B) D#:D( 'D5A'* 'DB5J1) +E CDE) Ali is older than Ahmed. My Car is faster than yours. %0' 'F*G* 'D5A) (-1A A#FF' F6JA AB7. safe safer than simple simpler than %0' 'F*G* 'D5A) (-1A A#FF' FBD( 'D %DI +E F6JA C'D9'/). easy easier than heavy heavier than y " P " P7 " P1 " PP " P " dV " P " PP " P  " PP FXBBB B  F 3 B  F 3 B  F 3 B  F 3 B 1BBF3BF3BF3BF3BF3BF3BBBU B  B $B$$F$3$B$$F$3$B$$F$3$B$$F$3$B$$F$3$B$$F$3$B$ (B(,B,xx71PVO hbDComparing Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'*:#$$$Dj2. 'DEB'1F) (JF #C+1 EF 4J&JF #H 4.5JF: FD'-8 GF' #GEJ) CDE) 'D*J *3(B 'D5A) 'DEB'1F) H JD'-8 %6'A) G0G 'DE1). Everest is the highest mountain. This is the biggest building in Riyadh. %0' 'F*G* 'D5A) (-1A A#FF' D' F6JA ,/J/). safe the safest %0' 'F*G* 'D5A) (-1A A#FF' FBD( 'D %DI +E F6JA C'D9'/). easy the easiest  " PJ " P6 " P' " P " PV " P " P( " P  " PP(FBYBB BF3BF3BF3BF3B6B B  F 3 B  F 3 B  F 3 B UBBBF3BF3BF3 BBPJ6)V' icDComparing Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'*:#$$$D1. 'DEB'1F) (JF 4J&JF #H 4.5JF: GF' **CHF 'D5A) EF #C+1 EF EB79  CD EB79 J-*HJ 9DI #C+1 EF -1AJF E*-1CJF E*('9/JF. G0' 'DFH9 EF 'D5A'* D' JB(D H D' . AAJ -'D) 'DEB'1F) (JF 4J&JF *3(B G0G 'D5A'* CDE) +E CDE) Jeddah is more beautiful than Riyadh. French is more difficult than English. f " PN " P " P  " PP FBSBBBB BF3BF3BF3F3 BF3B B B (O jdDComparing Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'*:#$$$D2. 'DEB'1F) (JF #C+1 EF 4J&JF #H 4.5JF: AJ -'D) 'DEB'1F) (JF #C+1 EF 4J&JF *3(B G0G 'D5A'* CDE) Amal is the most beautiful girl in her class. This is the most important subject in this book. zb " P` " P " P  " PP(FB9BBBF3BF3BF3BF3Bb B  F 3 B  BB(ba keDComparing Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'*:#$$$DED'-8@@@@@@@@@@@@): Adel is better than his brother at school. This girl is the worst one in her class. @ " P] " P " P  " PPFB BBF3F3%BF3BF3BF3B B B (U lfas& & ..as E+DG E+D (('D6(7) not as& .as DJ3 E+DG E+D G     X  J3*./E G0' 'D'57D'- -JF H,H/ E3'H') (JF 5A*JF. Ali is as tall as his brother. This bag is as big as my bag. J3*./E G0' 'D'57D'- AJ -'D) 9/E H,H/ E3'H') (JF 5A*JF. Ali is not as tall as his brother. This bag is not as big as my bag. 0 " Z= " Z " Z9 " ZE " Z  " ZZB.BBBF3FF3BF3FBF3BF3BBBBBB B  F 3 F  F 3 B  F 3 F  B  F 3 B  F 3 BB<0@7E mg8Adverbs'D81HA ['D#-H'D] z$$&$  $&$$$6 An Adverb always modifies a verb. 'D81A J5A 'DA9D /'&E'K Most adverbs are formed by adding to the adjectives. E98E 'D81HA *CHQF (%6'A) DD5A). slow slowly nice nicely happy happily careful carefully v( " P+ " P= " P) " PG " P  " PP@D@@@ @ @@@B@=B(BBE B $B$(B( ,@,0@0!=)E nh8Adverbs'D81HA ['D#-H'D] z$$&$  $&$$$6 tThere are many kinds of adverbs: GF'C 9/) #FH'9 EF 'D81HA: 1. Adverbs of manner: express how an action was done. 'D81HA 'D/'D) 9DI 'D3DHC :'D81HA 'D*J *9(1 9F CJAJ) HBH9 'D-/+. I closed the window carefully. The soldier fought bravely. 2. Adverbs of time: express the time when an action is or was done. 81HA 'D2E'F :'D81HA 'D*J *9(1 9F CJAJ) 2EF -/H+ 'DA9D. I m going to leave for Cairo tomorrow. What s going to happen next? ; " Z " Z6 " ZA " Z< " ZE " Z? " ZE " Z " ZZ!BBBBBF!B F ( B BBB F3BF3BF3BFF1 B  $F$+$B$(B(,B,,B,0B00F030B00F030B00F034B48B8!5@N16Doi8Adverbs'D81HA ['D#-H'D] z$$&$  $&$$$6 3. Adverbs of place: express when an action is done. 81HA 'DEC'F :'D81HA 'D*J *9(1 9F EC'F HBH9 'D-/+. I shall stand here. I ve looked everywhere for my lost pen. Some words that end in can be both adjectives or adverbs. Most of them refer to time. (96 'DCDE'* 'D*J *F*GJ (@ EF 'DEECF #F *CHF 81HA #H 5A'*. E98E G0G 'DCDE'* */D 9DI 'DHB*. E+D: A daily newspaper is published daily. We get up early to catch an early train. 5 " 3 " = " ^ " j "  " R "  "  " BF!BFf' B BBBF3B F3BF3B ]BiB B $B$(B(,B,0B00F030B00F03 0B00F03 0B00F030B00F034B48@85'iOpj8Adverbs'D81HA ['D#-H'D] z$$&$  $&$$$6 4. Adverbs of frequency: tell how often we do something. 'D81HA 'D/'D) 9DI 'D*C1'1 :'D*J *.(1F' 9F 9// E1'* -/H+ 'D4J!. HEF G0G 'D81HA: Verb to BE: A9D JCHF: J#*J 81A 'D*C1'1 (9/ 'DA9D 'DE3'9/ Ali is always on time. Other Verbs: 'D#A9'D 'D#.1I: J#*J 81A 'D*C1'1 B(D 'DA9D 'D9'/J Ali sometimes reads a book. 9 " ZX " ZJ " Z}ZBFF!B F 5 B B@BF FBF1B B  F 3  B   F  B $F$,$B$(B( (F(3(B((B(l!N9%:qknAdverbial Clause of Time 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'DHB*68   Conjunctions: #/H'* 'D1(7 when, whenever, as, as soon as, while, after, before, until, since These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of time with the main sentence. #/H'* 'D1(7 G0G *1(7 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'DHB* E9 'D,ED) 'D1&J3J). E+'D: I found a watch. I was walking in the street. I found a watch while I was walking in the street.  " Z " ZE " ZU " Z " ZP " Zb " Z " ZZ @@@ @BBF F BUBBHBBBB? B  F  B  @ XBXHdrlrAdverbial Clause of Place 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'DEC'F6:  $ Conjunctions: #/H'* 'D1(7 where, wherever These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of place with the main sentence. #/H'* 'D1(7 G0G *1(7 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'DEC'F E9 'D,ED) 'D1&J3J). E+'D: Wherever he goes his brother follows him.  " Z " Z " ZV " Z " ZQ " Z* " Z " ZZ BBB BBF F BFVBBHBBB B $B$$B$ (F("(B((B(lYH,smpAdverbial Clause of Cause 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'D3((69  $ Conjunctions: #/H'* 'D1(7 because, since, as These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of cause with the main sentence. #/H'* 'D1(7 G0G *1(7 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'D3(( E9 'D,ED) 'D1&J3J). E+'D: I stayed at home yesterday because it was raining.  " Z " Z " ZV " Z " ZP " Z3 " Z " ZZ BBB BBF F BFVBBGBBB B $B$(B((F((B((B(lYG5tntAdverbial Clause of Manner 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'D3DHC6;  $Conjunctions: #/H'* 'D1(7 As, as if, as through These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of manner with the main sentence. #/H'* 'D1(7 G0G *1(7 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'D3DHC E9 'D,ED) 'D1&J3J). /'&E'K J#*J (9/ E'6J :J1 -BJBJ. E+'D: He speaks as if he were a king. D'-8 '3*./'E (/D'K EF D#FG' :J1 -BJBJ) H E,1/ .J'D. It looks as if it would rain. D'-8 '3*./'E (/D'K EF HGH E'6J :J1 -BJBJ H #FG' E,1/ *HB9. J " Z " Z " ZW " Z " Z{ " Z  " ZN " Z " ZV " ZZ BBB BBF F BFWBBIBB*B B $B$ (B((F((B(M,B, 0B00F00B0U4B48B88B8[I* MUuotAdverbial Clause of Purpose 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'D:166;  $RConjunctions: #/H'* 'D1(7 that, so that, in order that These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of purpose with the main sentence. #/H'* 'D1(7 G0G *1(7 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'D:16 E9 'D,ED) 'D1&J3J). a) We use (may + infinitive) when the main verb is in the present or future. F3*./E (1(E'+'DE5/1) 9F/E' JCHF 'DA9D 'D1&J3J AJ 'DE6'19 #H 'DE3*B(D. E+'D: He works hard. He wishes to succeed. He works hard so that (that or in order that) he may succeed. b) We use (might + infinitive) when the main verb is in the simple past. F3*./E (1(E'+'DE5/1) 9F/E' JCHF 'DA9D 'D1&J3J AJ 'DE'6J 'D(3J7. E+'D: He was walking quickly in order that he might not be late.  "  " w " J " M " L " eI " F " < BBB BBF F BXB BGB B BB  B  F 32 B $B$ $F$ 31$B$ $B$ (B(,B,0B0 40B0 0F0 0B0 0F0 0B0 0F0 0B0 0B00F03,0B04B4 4F4 3,4B4 8B8  $ JConjunctions: #/H'* 'D1(7 though, although These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of contrast with the main sentence. #/H'* 'D1(7 G0G *1(7 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'D*F'B6 E9 'D,ED) 'D1&J3J). E+'D: He is poor. He is happy. Although (though) he is poor, he is happy.  " Z " Z " ZY " Z " ZR " ZE " Z " ZZ BBB BBF F BYBBJBBBB B  F  B  F  B  B X\JGxr|Adverbial Clause of Contrast 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'DEB'1F)6? ! $!PConjunctions: #/H'* 'D1(7 as& .as, so& & as These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of contrast with the main sentence. #/H'* 'D1(7 G0G *1(7 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'DEB'1F) E9 'D,ED) 'D1&J3J). E+'D: Nabeel is as clever as his father. Sami is not so strong as his brother.  " Z " Z " ZY " Z " ZS " ZI " Z " ZZ BBB BBF F BFYBBKBBBB  B  F  B  F  B  F  B  F  B  B X\KKyszAdverbial Clause of Condition 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'D-'D)6>  $8Conjunctions: #/H'* 'D1(7 if, unless These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of condition with the main sentence. #/H'* 'D1(7 G0G *1(7 'D,ED 'D81AJ) 'D/'D) 9DI 'D-'D) E9 'D,ED) 'D1&J3J). E+'D: If we are ill, we go to bed. If we work hard, we will succeed. If we worked hard, we would succeed. If he had fallen, he would have hurt himself. Unless the rain falls, the crops will not grow. . " P " P  " PZ " P " PQ " P " P " PP BBB BB F F BFZBBIBBBB F  B  F   B  F # B  F , B  F + B  B X ]Iztas& & ..as E+DG E+D [('D6(7 ] not as& .as DJ3 E+DG E+D H &  &   $$((,,f    J3*./E G0' 'D'57D'- -JF H,H/ E3'H') (JF -'DJF. Ahmed drives as dangerously as his brother. J3*./E G0' 'D'57D'- AJ -'D) 9/E H,H/ E3'H') (JF -'DJF. Hamad does not drive as dangerously as his brother. 0 " Z. " Z9 " Z5 " Z  " ZZB.BBBF3 FF3BBBBBB  B  F 3 B  F 3  F  F 3 B  BB<0075 {ubActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0vJB5/ ('DE(FJ DDE9DHE GH 'D,ED) 'D*J JCHF A'9DG' E9DHE'K. JB5/ ('DE(FJ DDE,GHD GH 'D,ED) 'D*J JCHF A'9DG' :J1 E9DHE #H BDJD 'D#GEJ). GF'C 9/) #FH'9 EF 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHD: Statements 'D,ED 'D.(1J) Questions 'D#3&D@@@@@@@@@@@) Command 'D#E@@@@@@@@@@@@@1  " Zz " Z  " ZZF BB  B BBBB B   F  B $B$d  +|vbActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0NAhmed broke the window yesterday. G0G 'D,ED) E(FJ DDE9DHE H0DC D#F 'DA'9D AJG' E9DHE HGH . ______________________________________________________ The window was broken yesterday. The window was broken (by Ahmed) yesterday. G0G 'D,ED) E(FJ DDE,GHD H0DC D#F 'DA'9D AJG' :J1 E9DHE HGH CE' AJ 'D,ED) 'D#HDI #H H69 EC'F 'DEA9HD (G E3(HB'K (@@ CE' AJ 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ). " " S "  "  " "BBMB B B0"MybActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0&DD*-HJD EF 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE %DI 'DE(FJ DDE,GHD AJ -'D) 'D,ED 'D.(1J) F*(9 'D.7H'* 'D*'DJ): 1. 'DEA9HD (G J5(- A'9D'K. (J91A 'DEA9HD (G (H,H/G (9/ 'DA9D E('41)) 2. F69 A9D AJ FA3 2EF 'D,ED) EF'3('K DDEA9HD (G. 3. 69 'DA9D 'D#5DJ AJ 'D*51JA 'D+'D+. 4. F69 'DA'9D E3(HB'K (@@ HB/ J47( %0' C'F 6EJ1'K. 5. #J 2J'/) AJ 'D,ED) JH69 CE' GH AJ FG'J) 'D,ED) /HF *:JJ1. h "  " rBBBB B (rzbActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0:#E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@): h "  " BBBB B ({bActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0rJ51A A9D E9 'D#2EF) 'DE.*DA) CE' JDJ: Z6 "  " 5BBB B (5|bActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0DD*-HJD EF 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE %DI 'DE(FJ DDE,GHD AJ -'D) 'D#3&D) F*(9 'D.7H'* 'D*'DJ) : 1. 'DEA9HD (G J5(- A'9D'K. (J91A 'DEA9HD (G (H,H/G (9/ 'DA9D E('41)) 2. F69 A9D AJ FA3 2EF 'D3$'D. 3. 69 'DA9D 'D#5DJ AJ 'D*51JA 'D+'D+. 4. F69 'DA'9D E3(HB'K (@@ HB/ J47( %0' C'F 6EJ1'K. 5. #J 2J'/) AJ 'D,ED) JH69 CE' GH AJ FG'J) 'D,ED) /HF *:JJ1. h{ "  " mBBB B B (m }bActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0:#E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@): h "  " BBBB B (~bActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0fDD*-HJD EF 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE %DI 'DE(FJ DDE,GHD AJ -'D) 'D#E1 F*(9 'D.7H'* 'D*'DJ) : 1. 69 CDE) AJ #HD 'D,ED). 2. 'DEA9HD (G J5(- A'9D'K. (J91A 'DEA9HD (G (H,H/G (9/ 'DA9D E('41)) 3. 69 A9D AJ FA3 'D2EF #J 'D#E1 AJCHF . 4. 69 'DA9D 'D#5DJ AJ 'D*51JA 'D+'D+.X4 " kBB!BBB kbActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0:#E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@): h "  " BBBB B (bActive & Passive 'DE(FJ DDE9DHE H 'DE(FJ DDE,GHDV2     (0rB/ *CHF 'D,ED) 'DE1'/ *-HJDG' %DI 'DE(FJ DDE,GHD EFAJ) #H 3$'D'K E0JD'K D0' J,( 'DE-'A8) 9DI 5J:) G0' 'D3$'D #H 'D*0JJD 9F/ 'D*-HJD %DI 'DE(FJ DDE,GHD. #E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@)  "  "  " BBBBB B (Transitive & Intransitive Verbs 'D#A9'D 'DD'2E) H 'D#A9'D 'DE*9/J)TD$$$"  $0":Intransitive Verbs ('D#A9'D 'DD'2E)) GJ 'D*J D' *#.0 EA9HD'K (G. E+D: The sun rises. :Intransitive Verbs ('D#A9'D 'DD'2E)) GJ 'D*J *#.0 EA9HD'K (G H'-/'K #H #C+1. Ali raised his hand. *'D#A9'D 'DD'2E) D' JECF *-HJDG' %DI E(FJ DDE,GHD D9/E H,H/ EA9HD (G (G'  #E' 'D,ED 'D*J *-HJ #A9'D E*9/J) AJECF *-HJDG' %DI E(FJ DDE,GHD. *GF'C (96 'D#A9'D 'DE*9/J) DEA9HDJF D0' JECF *-HJDG' %DI E(FJ DDE,GHD. E+'D: Ahmed gave Huda a flower . *(FI (71JB*JF: a) Huda was given a flower (by Ahmed). b) A flower was given to Huda (by Ahmed) D'-8 H69 DDEA9HD (G 'D9'BD -JF *#.J1G . I "  " P "  "  "  "  " FFF"B B  F  B BFFFF(BB B $F$$B$(B( ,F,30F034F4 38B8B B  B $B$4:  P@.Prepositions -1HA 'D,1V $$$ F $0  \-1HA 'D,1 C+J1) H E*4'(C)  AB/ JCHF DD-1A 'DH'-/ #C+1 EF E9FI H0DC -3( EHB9G AJ 'D,ED). H 'D71JB) 'DE+DI D*9DE -1HA 'D,1 GJ 'D*/1( 9DJG' EF .D'D ,ED H DJ3* C-1HA EFA5D). A preposition shows the relation between the subject and the object. There are also prepositions of time and prepositions of place. */D -1HA 'D,1 9DI 'D9D'B) (JF 'DA'9D H 'DEA9HD (G H JH,/ #J6'K -1HA ,1 /'D) 9DI 'D2EF H -1HA ,1 /'D) 9DI 'DEC'F.  " P " P " Ps " P " P  " PPFBB BB}B B (~LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0LUse of Prepositions '3*./'E -1HA 'D,1^'$$$ F $F$0<Question-Tags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uestion-Tags 'D#3&D) 'DE0JD)Z $$$  $$0 'F81 G0' 'D3$'D H 'D%,'() 9DJG: * There s a supermarket near here, isn t there? Yes , there is. *'D,ED) 'D*J *B/E* G0' 'D3$'D ,ED) E+(*) D0' ,'! 'D3$'D 9DJG' ('D*0JJD) EFAJ'K. #E' 'D,H'( AJCHF ('D%+('* . * HDCJ FCHF 3$'D'K EF G0' 'DFH9 FB/E 'DA9D 'DE3'9/ +E F69 (9/G H0DC DDFAJ. H 'D"F 'F81 'DE+'D 'D*'DJ: * You come from the United States, don t you? Yes, I do. *AJ G0' 'DE+'D *E *0JJD 'D3$'D ('3*./'E H0DC D9/E H,H/ A9D E3'9/.  " C "  " < " M "  BB.F3FB B , F 3 F LBB< C<L<Question-Tags 'D#3&D) 'DE0JD)Z $$$  $$0 1) You don t come from Saudi Arabia, do you? No, I don t. 2) It doesn t take long time be car, does it? No, it doesn t. *D'-8 GF' #F 'D3$'D AJ 2EF 'DE6'19 'D(3J7 D0' '3*./EF' CA9D E3'9/. 3) You didn t travel last year, did you? No, I didn t. *D'-8 GF' #F 'D3$'D AJ 2EF 'DE'6J 'D(3J7 D0' '3*./EF' CA9D E3'9/.  " ZV " Z= " ZZ " ZB*F3FB+F3FVBB B B&F3FZB<V;Z:Conditional  if  DH 'D417J)6$ $$ jG0' 'D-/+ EECF HBH9G. If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home. (%F *E71 :/'K  3#(BI AJ 'D(J*) If you eat too much, you will become fat. E+'D:   " ZK " Z " ZT " ZBBBF3 B F B!B B  F 3 B  F  B +B4,!)+:Conditional  if  DH 'D417J)6$ $$  :Conditional  if  DH 'D417J)6$ $$  If he had lived in Taif, he would have been happy. If he had visited Makkah, he would have seen the Ka aba.  " Pp " PBB F3 BFBFB F3 BFBBp:Conditional  if  DH 'D417J)6$ $$ *J3*./E G0' 'D*1CJ( AJ 'D-'D) 'D*J *CHF AJG' F*J,) 'DA9D -BJB) /'&E) H +'(*). If you boil water, it becomes steam. (DH #FF' :DJF' 'DE'!  A#FG J5(- (.'1'K) H G0G -BJB) +'(*) H DJ3* EBJ/) (HB* E9JF D0' ,'!* CDE) AJ 'DE6'19 H DJ3* AJ 'DE3*B(D. M " P` " Ph " P " PLBBB B  F 3 B BBBHL%<Reported Speech 'DCD'E 'DEFBHD6$$$hG0' 'DFH9 EF 'D,ED J3EI #J6'K 'DCD'E 'D:J1 E('41. Indirect Speech There are four kinds of direct and Indirect Speech. GF'C #1(9) #FH'9 EF 'DCD'E 'DE('41 H :J1 'DE('41: 1) Statement 'D,ED) 'D.(1J) 2) Question 'D3$'D 3) Command 'D7D( 4) Exclamation 'D*9,( B " P5 " P2 " P " P2BFB2BF2B B  F 3F3F3F3 F3 F 3$F$3 (F(3 ,F,30F034F438F83?" dd@,?nFd@  d nF@ d`nF n?" dd@   @@``PP   @ ` ` p>> ld(  6 T ~  "~  c B@CW DEF"d@ W @W @W W @`".~  c B,CW DEF"d@ W ,W ,@`". \ ~  "~  c B CDEF"@   @`"(4  c B C DEF"d@ @`"(W4  c BtC DEF"d@t t tt@`"~   c B CDEF"@ @`"([4W   c B CDEF"d@ @`"(4   c B CDEF"2@  @`"(4[   c BC DEF"d@ @`"_   c BC DEF"@ @`"  c BC DEF"@  @`"\  B4( ?"0F  T Click to edit Master title style! !$  0* "0  RClick to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level!     S  0x1 "`P  @*   0<6 "`p   B*   0; "`0  B* H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i. @F$+D=' = @B + Shimmer  3(   T ~  "~~b ~ # "~  c B@CW DEF"d@ W @W @W W @`".~  c B,CW DEF"d@ W ,W ,@`".  c B CDEF"2@  @`"(4[  c BC DEF"@ @`"  c BC DEF"d@ @`"_b \~  # "\~   c B CDEF"@   @`"(4   c B C DEF"d@ @`"(W4   c BtC DEF"d@t t tt@`"~   c B CDEF"@ @`"([4W  c B CDEF"d@ @`"(4  c BC DEF"@  @`"\  Hp ?"p  T Click to edit Master title style! !  0 " `   W#Click to edit Master subtitle style$ $  0 M "`P  @*   0 "`@`   B*   0, "`0  B* H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i. @F$+D=' = @B +} ($(  (r ( S Tp  r ( S  0`  H ( 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.L+D=' = @B +  0l(  lx l c $X0F   x l c $)   r l S p*   H l 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.m+D=' = @B ++ K0 *"(   ~   s *R0F  R    s *R  R *!i     `'R))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B "    `\-R))?"6@`NNN?N` PlU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B T,n    # #"xx    `P ))?"6@ NNN?N9  IZ  @`    `D ))?"6@ NNN?N[9 IY  @`    ` ))?"6@ NNN?N9[ IX  @`    ` ))?"6@ NNN?N9 IW  @`    `  ))?"6@ NNN?NW 9 IV  @`    `t  ))?"6@ NNN?N 9W  IU  @`    `l ))?"6@ NNN?N 9  IT  @`    `0R ))?"6@ NNN?NR 9  IS  @`    ``9R ))?"6@ NNN?N9R  IR  @`    ` K0 U=M= 1<(  x  c $tyV0F  V F  `0P   ` 0P   Z,gV))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   ZgV))?"6@`NNN?N`0P+U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  ZhhV))?"6@`NNN?N ` P,U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B %4 0  #"*MMxxx0 V   ` ))?"6@`NNN?N k 0vnf___PPT9H@@@ FlAhmed writes quickly. #-E/ JC*( (319).l!  3   4# @`   `V ))?"6@`NNN?N`k PH@___PPT9"@ ^GH 9('1) 9F CDE) *5A 'DA9D #H *2J/ 'D5A) H6H-'K$0// @`   `V ))?"6@`NNN?Nk `\TL___PPT9.&@ Adverb -'D>  @`5 Y  `W ))?"6@`NNN?N s 0  _Play, played, will play @` W  `l W ))?"6@`NNN?N`s PH@___PPT9"@ @GH E' J/D 9DI -/H+ 4J! AJ HB* E'&!   @` U  `W ))?"6@`NNN?Ns ` \TL___PPT9.&@ Verb A9D>  @`P R  `<W ))?"6@`NNN?N 0k ___PPT9bZ@@@ rich man 1,D :FJ D'-8 #F 'D5A) GF' 3(B* 'D'3E 'DEH5HA (9C3 'DD:) 'D91(J) 'D*J *CHF AJG' 'D5A) (9/ 'D'3E 'DEH5HAz_3  ^J^ @` P  `P/W ))?"6@`NNN?N` k PH@___PPT9"@ JGH 9('1) 9F CDE) *5A 'D'3E H*CHF B(DG$&%% @` N  `:W ))?"6@`NNN?N `k \TL___PPT9.&@  Adjective 5A)>   @` * 3 r@Wfv @))?"6@ NNN?N 0-PH@___PPT9"@ ~E+'D& @` ( 3 r,KWfv @))?"6@ NNN?N` -PH@___PPT9"@  *91JA*BB @`, & 3 rlSWfv @))?"6@`NNN?N`- D @`P   `\W ))?"6@ NNN?N 0s  z2I, he, she, it, etc. & & .. @`   `^W ))?"6@ NNN?N` s PH@___PPT9"@ :GH E' J/D 9DI '3E #H J-D E-DG& @`   `qW ))?"6@ NNN?N`s \TL___PPT9.&@ Pronoun 6EJ1>  @`)   `yW ))?"6@ NNN?N -0 S Ahmed, book   @`!   `tW ))?"6@ NNN?N`-  K  @`   `W ))?"6@ NNN?N-`\TL___PPT9.&@ Noun '3E>  @`B  Zo ))?"0@NNN?N`B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0B   `1 ))?"0@NNN?Ns 0s B   `o ))?"0@NNN?N0B  Zo ))?"0@NNN?N-B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N``s B   Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  s B ' Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N-0-B -  `o ))?"0@NNN?N`0B O Z1 ))?"0@NNN?Nk 0k B V Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B ^  `o ))?"0@NNN?Ns  B /  `o ))?"0@NNN?N-s B `  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N`s ` B d  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N s B f  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0s 0 B !  `o ))?"0@NNN?N00s B  Zo ))?"0@NNN?N k B x  `o ))?"0@NNN?Nk B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` `B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N B  Zo ))?"0@NNN?N0 0k B |  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0k 0   ` @`v 0  `4W ))?"6@`NNN?N p 0 \TL___PPT9.&@ <tAli and Ahmad visited us yesterday. 9DJ H #-E/ 2'1HF' #E3p$33$ @`  0  `W ))?"6@`NNN?N`p PH@___PPT9"@ ^GH CDE) *5D E' (JF CDE) H CDE) #H ,ED) H,ED) . $0// @`  0  `W ))?"6@`NNN?Np ` \TL___PPT9.&@ 4Conjunction -1A 'D97A>   @` 0 3 r   @`B 0 Zo ))?"0@NNN?N`B 0  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Np 0p B 0  `o ))?"0@NNN?N` 0` B 0 Zo ))?"0@NNN?N-B 0 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N``p B  0 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  p B !0 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N-0-B "0  `o ))?"0@NNN?N`0B $0 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B %0  `o ))?"0@NNN?Np  B &0  `o ))?"0@NNN?N-p B (0  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N`p ` B )0 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` `` B *0  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N p B +0 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N ` B ,0  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0p 0 B -0  `o ))?"0@NNN?N00p B 70  `o ))?"0@NNN?N ` B ;0  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0 0`  j0  `CZ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H 0 0޽h ? 33___PPT10i.LY+D=' = @B +7 K0 65 +C45(  4~ 4 s *cZ0F  Z F  `0P 4 ` 0P 4 ZdeZ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  4 ZiZ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " 4 ZW))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B ) 0  A4 #"&MSwx0  Z 4  `|oZ ))?"6@`NNN?N 0B vnf___PPT9H@@@ JXThis is an apple. 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Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 ` B "  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0 ` B # Zo ))?"0@NNN?N0 0B $ Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B % Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` `B & Zo ))?"0@NNN?N` `B L  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0h 0 B M Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` h ` B R Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N`h ` B U  `o ))?"0@NNN?N`h ` B c  `o ))?"0@NNN?N00h B e  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N` ` h B f  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N``h B g  `o ))?"0@NNN?N``h  k  `D))?"6@`NNN?N` P;U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.p)>+D=' = @B + +   **@&2)(  x  c $30F   ~  s *Р`  F  `0P  ` 0P  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z`))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z@))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B j  0 ` 1 #"" 0`     ` ))?"6@ NNN?N`H ` 2Listen to the radio/news. Go to the market/desert.P3 BF3BF3B @`    `ʣ ))?"6@ NNN?N` H `PH@___PPT9"@ 0E9 (96 'D*9(J1'* 'D9'E).(BB @`>    `ͣ ))?"6@ NNN?N0H `  hWith some general expressions.B @`\    ``ޣ ))?"6@ NNN?N` `H   On the first day of every month.4!BF3B @`    ` ))?"6@ NNN?N` `H PH@___PPT9"@ E9 'D*H'1J..(  BB  @`+   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N0 ` H  U With dates.  B @`u   ` ))?"6@`NNN?N` `  at the weekend in the eveningPBF3 BF3 B @`   ` ))?"6@`NNN?N` ` PH@___PPT9"@ BE9 (96 'D*9'(J1 'D/'D) 9DI 'DHB*.("!BB! @`;   ` ))?"6@`NNN?N0 `  eWith some time expressions.B @`j   `0 ))?"6@`NNN?N` `  The United Kingdom The U.S.A.DF3BF3B @`   ` ) ))?"6@`NNN?N` ` PH@___PPT9"@ $#3E'! (96 'D(D/'F.(BB @`9   `D# ))?"6@`NNN?N0 `  cNames of some countries. B @`B  Zo ))?"0@NNN?N0 ` B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 ` B   `1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 ` B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0H `H B   `o ))?"0@NNN?N0`B  Zo ))?"0@NNN?N0 0 B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B  Zo ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B   `o ))?"0@NNN?N0 0B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B   Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` `B !  `o ))?"0@NNN?N` `B *  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0 0 B ,  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B -  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B .  `o ))?"0@NNN?N` `  2  `8))?"6@`NNN?N` P=U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.p)>+D=' = @B +j&  %y%Pm%(  x  c $ 0F      `L))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B "   `H))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B y 0 l #""0 j    `_ ))?"6@`NNN?N0 0 Jon Monday, in June in summer (sometimes in the summer). before breakfast.KKB @`    `8i ))?"6@`NNN?N0 0PH@___PPT9"@ nD' *3*./E #J #/') E9 #3E'! E9JF) E+D 'D#J'E H 'D4GH1 .(87BB7 @`a    `Xx ))?"6@`NNN?N 0  ANo article is used before such words such as day and month names.BBB @`O    `z ))?"6@`NNN?N0 0  y/I am going to school. I always go to bed early.00B @`$    `l ))?"6@`NNN?N0 0 PH@___PPT9"@ D' *3*./E #J #/') B(D #3E'! E9JF) E+D E/13)  EF2D  31J1  9ED....(A@BB@ @`g   ` ))?"6@`NNN?N 0  GNo article is used before such words as school, home, bed, work, etc. HHB @`Z   `4 ))?"6@`NNN?N00  :I do not like science. My favorite subject is mathematics.;;B @`   `쟤 ))?"6@`NNN?N0 0 PH@___PPT9"@ VD' *3*./E #J #/') E9 #3E'! 'DEH'/ 'D/1'3J).(,+BB+ @`Z   `4 ))?"6@`NNN?N0  :No article is used with the names of studies of subjects. ;;B @`[   `T ))?"6@`NNN?N00 I saw a man. 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P }  Khim @` N8 <h?0 }  Jhe @` K8 <@r?} c  Oherself @` I8 <z? } c  Lhers @` G8 <@?P } c  Kher @` E8 <̌?} P c  Kher @` C8 <@?0} c  Kshe @` @8 <̞? P  Lthem @` >8 <?: P  Kyou @` <8 <?c P T  Jit @` :8 <?P  Jme @` 88 < ?pP \TL___PPT9.&@ @Object Pronouns 6E'&1 'DEA9HD (G:! @` 58 <Υ?P   Mtheir @` 38 <Hǥ?P :  Lyour @` 18 <x?P c T  Kits @` /8 <?P   Jmy @` -8 <?P p \TL___PPT9.&@ DPossessive Adjectives 5A'* 'DEDCJ):#   @` 8 <?  R themselves   @` 8 <?  Ntheirs @` 8 <D ?0  Lthey @` 8 <$?:   R yourselves   @`  8 <!? :   Myours @`  8 <*?0:   Kyou @`  8 <3?c T  Nitself @`  8 <-? c T  Kits @`  8 <HE?0c T  Jit @` 8 <N? Nmyself @` 8 <V?  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What are they going to eat? * D'-8 #FF' B/EF' 9DI D#FG' GJ 'DA9D 'DE3'9/ +E -0AF' CDE) D#FG' 'D,H'( 9DI 'D3$'D. They played tennis at school. Where did they play tennis? * D'-8 #FF' '3*./EF' D9/E H,H/ A9D E3'9/ H D#F 'DA9D AJ 'DE'6J. H D'-8 #J6'K -0A EF 'DA9D D%9'/*G #DI #5DG. 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How much did you pay for this coat?FH  33 @`  <̭?( 0x  QHow old @`\  <ͭ?p (x PH@___PPT9"@ DD3$'D 9F 'D9E1$ @`  <? px  'I am twenty years old. How old are you?.(3  @`  <?(h0  RHow many   @`\   <?ph( PH@___PPT9"@ DD3$'D 9F 'D9//$ @`!   <(?hp  ?Thirty boys are in this class. How many boys are in this class?<@ 3 3 @`   <"?(0h MHow @`t   <,?p(hPH@___PPT9"@ 6DD3$'D 9F 'D-'D) #H 'DCJAJ)$ @`2   <8?ph FHe was very pleased to meet his friend. How was he to meet his friend?FG 33 @``B  0o ?0ZB  s *1 ?h0hZB  s *1 ? 0 ZB  s *1 ?x 0x `B  0o ?0`B  0o ?ZB  s *1 ?ppZB  s *1 ?((`B  0o ?00 '  `H3))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  (  `B))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B  *  `L))?"6@`NNN?N` PeU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.RM/+D=' = @B +  4,P(  x  c $$0F   ~  s *c    0 # #""0   <?(x 0 RHow tall   @`l  <.?px (PH@___PPT9"@ .DD3$'D 9F #7H'D 'D#4.'5$ @`  <Dw?x p 0Sami is meter and a half tall. How tall is Sami?F133  @`  <pz?( 0x  RHow high   @`f   <xy?p (x PH@___PPT9"@ (DD3$'D 9F 'D%1*A'9'*$ @`    <l? px  7This fence is four meters high. How high is this fence?.83 @`   <$?(h0  RHow long   @``   <ܧ?ph( PH@___PPT9"@ "DD3$'D 9F 'D#7H'D$ @`    <?hp  4This rope is two meters long. How long is this rope?F5 33 @`  < Ů?(0h QHow far @`b  <lή?p(hPH@___PPT9"@ $DD3$'D 9F 'DE3'A'*$ @`4  <tڮ?ph HIt is 450 KM from Dammam to Riyadh. How far is it from Dammam to Riyadh?FI33 @``B  0o ?0ZB  s *1 ?h0hZB  s *1 ? 0 ZB  s *1 ?x 0x `B  0o ?0`B  0o ?ZB  s *1 ?ppZB  s *1 ?((`B  0o ?00   `Ԯ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B "   `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    `))?"6@`NNN?N` PgU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.RM/+D=' = @B +  6 .   (  x  c $0F     0< jbZ___PPT9<4@@ $*3*./E H #.H'*G' AJ 'D,ED 'D.(1J) H DJ3* 'DEFAJ) #H 'D3$'D. H*3*./E H #.H'*G' E9 'D3$'D H 'DFAJ. E9 'D3$'D: E9 'DFAJ: GBBB0B BBBBB B (GHP@08X  <| 8some3    `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B 7   0p("`P S1) We had some books. 2) Somebody was there. 3) He is somewhere. Z? 33 3  </@T`  7any35  0|4"`P P  Q1) Do you have any books? 2) Is anybody at home? 3) Is he anywhere? Z>333;  0<"`P  W1) We do not have any books. 2) I did not see anybody. 3) He is not anywhere. Z@3"33   `C))?"6@`NNN?N` PiU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.RM/+D=' = @B +~    (  x  c $L0F   x  c $M0     `O))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    `4U))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B     f_ ))?"6@ NNN?N 9not3    `b))?"6@`NNN?N` PkU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.RM/+D=' = @B +H  GGDx6G(  x  c $ `   n 0 H w #"2&0 H 4 9  `P ))?"6@`NNN?N H ^They re not   @`* 8  `X ))?"6@`NNN?N0  T They are not   @`0 7  `t ))?"6@`NNN?N H  ZWe re not   @`( 6  `Đ ))?"6@`NNN?N0   R We are not   @`2 5  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N H  \You re not   @`) 4  `t ))?"6@`NNN?N0   S You are not   @`. 3  `  ))?"6@`NNN?N H  XIt s not   @`' 2  `H ))?"6@`NNN?N0   Q It is not   @`0 1  `Pů ))?"6@`NNN?N H  ZShe s not   @`( 0  `Dί ))?"6@`NNN?N0    R She is not   @`. /  `د ))?"6@`NNN?N H  XHe s not   @`' .  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N0    Q He is not   @`, -  `$ ))?"6@`NNN?NH  VI m not @`& ,  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N0   PI am not   @`- +  `H ))?"6@ NNN?NH W Short Forms   @`, *  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N0  V Long Forms   @`B :  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0 HB ; Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 HB < Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0  H B = Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0  H B > Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 H B ? Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 H B @ Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 H B A Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 H B B  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0 HB C  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0 0 B D Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NB E  `o ))?"0@NNN?NHHF  `0P  ` 0P  Z ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z())?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B b p  u #"2&p  , J  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N  VThey re @`& K  `L* ))?"6@ NNN?Np  PThey are   @`( L  `3 ))?"6@ NNN?N  R We re @`$ M  `t< ))?"6@ NNN?Np   NWe are @`* N  `<. ))?"6@ NNN?N  T You re @`% O  ` N ))?"6@ NNN?Np   OYou are @`& P  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N  PIt s @`# Q  `H ))?"6@ NNN?Np   MIt is @`( R  `xg ))?"6@ NNN?N  R She s @`$ S  `p ))?"6@ NNN?Np   NShe is @`& T  `y ))?"6@ NNN?N   PHe s @`# U  `$k ))?"6@ NNN?Np   MHe is @`$ V  `P ))?"6@ NNN?N   NI m @`" W  ` ))?"6@ NNN?Np  LI am @`- X  `| ))?"6@ NNN?N  W Short Forms   @`, Y  `H ))?"6@ NNN?Np V Long Forms   @`B Z  fo ))?"0@NNN?Np B [  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Np B \  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Np  B ]  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Np  B ^  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Np B _  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Np B `  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Np B a  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Np B b  fo ))?"0@NNN?Np B c  fo ))?"0@NNN?NppB d  `1 ))?"0@NNN?NB e  fo ))?"0@NNN?N   m Bت    f n 08 ` `\TL___PPT9.&@ &(Negative) AJ 'DFAJ< 333  t  `$))?"6@`NNN?N` PmU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  x B[ ?0F\TL___PPT9.&@ :Making Negative *CHJF 'DFAJ:$ $$ H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.RM/+D=' = @B +{0  //%0(/(  (x ( c $Ȱ0F   ~ ( s *ɰ0`   (  `˰))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B " (  `հ))?"6@`NNN?N` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   (  f<ٰ ))?"6@ NNN?Np j E(do, does, did)3  (  fϰ ))?"6@ NNN?Npj ;(not)3% 0 /( #"2&p0 +  (  ` ))?"6@ NNN?Nx 0 U no, not every @`   (  `H ))?"6@ NNN?N x \TL___PPT9.&@ Levery CD .' @`% (  ` ))?"6@ NNN?Nx  0  Onot all @` (  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N x \TL___PPT9.&@ Rall CD .*$$ @`: (  `  ))?"6@ NNN?Nx C 0  dnot so& & & & ..as @` (  ` ))?"6@`NNN?NC x  \TL___PPT9.&@ Bas& & & as E+DG.......E+D ."   @`# (  ` ))?"6@ NNN?Nx p 0C  Mnever @` (  `l, ))?"6@`NNN?Np x C \TL___PPT9.&@ Jsometimes #-J'F'K .&   @`< (  `d$ ))?"6@ NNN?Nx 0p  fneither& & & & .nor @` (  `% ))?"6@`NNN?N x p \TL___PPT9.&@ Heither& ..or %E'......#H .%   @`< (  `8 ))?"6@ NNN?Nx 0  fneither& & & & .nor @` (  `p9 ))?"6@ NNN?N x \TL___PPT9.&@ <both& & and CD EF....H .   @`% (  `XS ))?"6@ NNN?Nx 0  Ono, any @`L (  `S ))?"6@ NNN?Nx vnf___PPT9H@@@ Hsome (96F%  0 @` (  ` ] ))?"6@ NNN?Nx 0\TL___PPT9.&@ DNegative FAJ :#   @` (  `l{ ))?"6@ NNN?Nx \TL___PPT9.&@ DAffirmative '+('* :#   @`B (  fo ))?"0@NNN?N0B (  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N0B (  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B (  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B  (  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Np 0p B !(  `1 ))?"0@NNN?NC 0C B "(  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B #(  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B $(  fo ))?"0@NNN?N0B %(  fo ))?"0@NNN?NB &(  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Nx x B '(  fo ))?"0@NNN?N00 0(  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PoU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H ( 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.RM/+D=' = @B +  :n(  v"  N))?0~  s *dk   l @  * #"5x    <Ԣ? \TL___PPT9.&@ <from time to time EF -JF D".1 <   @`~   <? \TL___PPT9.&@ never #(/'K 2   @`|   <ă? \TL___PPT9.&@ rarelyF'/1' 2 @`   <?u  \TL___PPT9.&@ "sometimes#-J'F'K 2   @`~   <lȲ? u  \TL___PPT9.&@ often:'D('K 2   @`  <dҲ?u \TL___PPT9.&@ $generally 9EHEK' 2    @`  <޲?@ u \TL___PPT9.&@  usually9'/) 2   @`  <? @ u \TL___PPT9.&@  always /'&E'K 2   @`  <\?@ u vnf___PPT9H@@@ every CDJ  0 @``B  0o ?@ @ ZB  s *1 ?u u ZB  s *1 ?  `B  0o ?`B  0o ?@ ZB  s *1 ? @ ZB  s *1 ?@ `B  0o ?@   H))?"`\TL___PPT9.&@ d1. Present Simple Tense 'DE6'19 'D(3J7 T3ff ff ,  `D))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  -  `))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B  9 N ?0F    :  `|))?"6@`NNN?N` PqU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +*  A9 (  v"  N))?00x  c $t30F     s *9   "P@08X  HB))?"``\TL___PPT9.&@ b1. Present Simple Tense 'DE6'19 'D(3J7 Z2fffff  <G P  !  5sF  `0P  ` 0P  Z\8))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z<))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z L))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B v"  N))?0  HO))?"`\TL___PPT9.&@ d1. Present Simple Tense 'DE6'19 'D(3J7 T3ff ff   `V))?"6@`NNN?N` PsU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +{  ("(  v"  N))?00~  s *b     h  ]   #"5x     <Xo? ] \TL___PPT9.&@ |in 1988 AD, in 1415 AH: #H #J *'1J. AJ 'DE'6J E+D<? " @`v   <o?  \TL___PPT9.&@ agoE6I 2  @`   <z?  \TL___PPT9.&@ "last 'DE'6J 2   @`  <t? vnf___PPT9H@@@ &yesterday #E3J   0  @``B  0o ?  ZB  s *1 ?  `B  0o ?] ] `B  0o ? ] ZB  s *1 ? ZB  s *1 ?  `B  0o ? ]   H))?"``\TL___PPT9.&@ b2. Past Simple Tense 'DE'6J 'D(3J7 B2fff  < P  6ed3F  `0P   ` 0P ! Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  " Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " # Zܟ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B  $ B ?0\TL___PPT9.&@ J Past Simple Tense 'DE'6J 'D(3J7 L&ff ' Nȩ ?0F    (  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PuU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +      n (  v"  N))?00x  c $³0F     s *hȳ 0  "P@08X  Hd))?"``\TL___PPT9.&@ b2. Past Simple Tense 'DE'6J 'D(3J7 T2ff ffRB  s *DP@ RB  s *DpP@ pF  `0P  ` 0P  Z8`))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   ZȄ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    ` ))?"6@`NNN?N` PwU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +_  vn0(  v"  N))?00x  c $0F   ~  s *P    h    / #"5x M  <?E  \TL___PPT9.&@ ~in 2010 AD, in 1425 AH: #H #J *'1J. AJ 'DE3*B(D E+D <@'' @`  <?@ E \TL___PPT9.&@ 4in the futureAJ 'DE3*B(D 2    @`  <?  @E \TL___PPT9.&@ "next 'DB'/E 2   @`   < ? E vnf___PPT9H@@@ &tomorrow :/'KJ  0 @``B   0o ?  ZB   s *1 ?E E `B   0o ?  `B   0o ?  ZB  s *1 ?  E ZB  s *1 ?@ @E `B  0o ?    H))?"``\TL___PPT9.&@ h3. Future Simple Tense 'DE3*B(D 'D(3J7 b5fff ffX  <"P g\TL___PPT9.&@  shall will8D3D3 D3   0,@'  ;shall 2D3  0/@ 0'  <we I 2D3  0X3@ '  :will 2D3  06   ;shall 2D3  09 pP  :will 2D3F  `0P # ` 0P $ Z=))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  % Z C))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " & ZG))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B " ' Z4N))?@ 0 ( ( HT%))?"`p \TL___PPT9.&@ j3. Future Simple Tense 'DE3*B(D 'D(3J7 B6fff 0  `XT))?"6@`NNN?N` PyU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +      H (  "  Z ))?@ 0 (x  c $hk0F     s *| 0  "P@08X  H))?"`p Q\TL___PPT9.&@ l3. Future Simple Tense 'DE3*B(D 'D(3J7 B7fffRB  s *D  F  `0P   ` 0P   Z8))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "   Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    `))?"6@`NNN?N` P{U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +3  JB`@(  x  c $0F   ~  s *ĕP    h 0  ? #"P0 n  <? vnf___PPT9H@@@ |listen '3*E9 at the present time AJ 'DHB* 'D-'61     :    R  0 @`  <䤴?`0  vnf___PPT9H@@@  look 'F81 T  0 @`  <,? 0 ` \TL___PPT9.&@ Dat the moment AJ G0G 'DD-8) 2#   @`   <?0 vnf___PPT9H@@@ &now 'D"FJ   0  @``B   0o ?0 0 ZB   s *1 ?  `B   0o ?`B   0o ?0 ZB  s *1 ? 0 ZB  s *1 ?`0 ` `B  0o ?0   Hɴ))?"``vnf___PPT9H@@@ 4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ~X-ffff f  ff0.   6"`jbZ___PPT9<4@@ 4am / is / areA9D + + ing R F3F3f3 F 3* RB  s *D` ` RB  s *D 0 RB  s *D P  LB ! c $DP " * Zpϴ))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ f4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1D4 fff!F  `0P + ` 0P , ZX޴))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  - Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " . Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B  @  `p))?"6@`NNN?N` P}U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +E   \ T   (  x  c $0F     s *P 0  "P@08X  H))?"`` *fF  `0P  ` 0P  Zp))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   ZX))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "   Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "   Z))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ f4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1D4 fff!    `%))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +<  ;;)^;(  ~  s *1  p- `p  #"&PPPPPp`    `= ))?"6@ NNN?N \TL___PPT9.&@ 2understandJAGE .   @`   `dE ))?"6@ NNN?N \TL___PPT9.&@  trustJ+B .   @`   `HJ ))?"6@ NNN?N` \TL___PPT9.&@ believeJ5/B . @`   `Y ))?"6@ NNN?N(`  \TL___PPT9.&@ fitJF'3( .   @`   `b ))?"6@ NNN?N ` ( \TL___PPT9.&@ "considerJ9*(1 .   @`   `l ))?"6@ NNN?N` \TL___PPT9.&@ fearJ.4I .   @`   `hy ))?"6@ NNN?N``  \TL___PPT9.&@ appearJ8G1 . @`   `h ))?"6@ NNN?N( ` \TL___PPT9.&@ "seemJ(/H .   @`   `~ ))?"6@ NNN?N  (` \TL___PPT9.&@  thinkJ9*B/ .   @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N ` \TL___PPT9.&@ hearJ3E9 .   @`   `̡ ))?"6@ NNN?N` ` \TL___PPT9.&@ hopeJ#ED .   @`   `X ))?"6@ NNN?N(  \TL___PPT9.&@ "feelJ491 .   @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N ( \TL___PPT9.&@  dislikeJC1G .   @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N  \TL___PPT9.&@  hateJC1G .   @`   `˶ ))?"6@ NNN?N`  \TL___PPT9.&@ "wish J*EFI .   @`   `Զ ))?"6@ NNN?N(p \TL___PPT9.&@  preferJA6D .   @` ~  `߶ ))?"6@ NNN?N p( \TL___PPT9.&@ wantJ1J/ .   @` }  `4 ))?"6@ NNN?Np \TL___PPT9.&@ loveJ-( .   @` |  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N`p \TL___PPT9.&@ $likeJ-( . @`B   `o ))?"0@NNN?N`ppB  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N`  B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N`  B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N`` ` B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N`  B   `o ))?"0@NNN?N`B   `o ))?"0@NNN?N`p`B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NpB  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N p B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N(p( B   `o ))?"0@NNN?Np   ` ))?"6@ NNN?NTPH@___PPT9"@ p(96 'D#A9'D D' JECF #F *B9 AJ 'D'3*E1'1 3H'! 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 #H 'DE'6J 'DE3*E1 HG0G 'D#A9'D *9(1 9F 'D49H1 H'D#0I H'D%-3'3 HEF G0G 'D#A9'D :F  `0P  ` 0P  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "  Z ))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ f4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1D4 fff!  N ?0F      `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +c  zrE (  x  c $30F   ~  s *4 p    d  9  D #"   9    <? Y9 \TL___PPT9.&@ &as -J+ #F 2 @`  <\Ŷ?Y 9 ___PPT9|t@@@@ hDbecause D#F #B    X  @`  <x8? 9 \TL___PPT9.&@ $while (JFE' 2   @`  <D? 9 vnf___PPT9H@@@ (when 9F/E'J   0  @``B   0o ?  `B   0o ?9 9 `B   0o ? 9 ZB   s *1 ? 9 ZB  s *1 ? 9 `B  0o ? 9 B ! Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NY Y9   HP))?"``vnf___PPT9H@@@ 4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ~X-ffff f  ff0.   T_??"6?@`NNN?Nw \TL___PPT9.&@ *was / were A9D+ + ing> F3F3F3 F  `0P 5 ` 0P 6 Z|k))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  7 Zp))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " 8 Zu))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B :" 9 Zz))?`|t___PPT9VN@@@ $d5. Past Continuous Tense 'DE'6J 'DE3*E1`3ff  fff< E  `|))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +  &(  x  c $@0F     s *D 0  "P@08X  H))?"`` *f  Z@ ))?"6@ NNN?N 0 PH@___PPT9"@ E'6J E3*E1$ (2 0  Z8o ))?"6@ NNN?N p PH@___PPT9"@ E'6J (3J7$ (2 0   ZB ))?"6@ NNN?N`  4 PH@___PPT9"@ E'6J E3*E1$ (2 0   Z찷 ))?"6@ NNN?N` p 4 PH@___PPT9"@ E'6J (3J7$ (2 0F  `0P   ` 0P   Z䳷))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    Zh))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "  Z))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ d5. Past Continuous Tense 'DE'6J 'DE3*E1D3 fff!   `ŷ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +  &4(  4x 4 c $Ϸ0F    4 s *ַ 0  "P@08X 4 H8))?"`` *f 4 Z ))?"6@ NNN?N  PH@___PPT9"@ E'6J E3*E1$ (2 0 4 ZP ))?"6@ NNN?N p PH@___PPT9"@ E'6J (3J7$ (2 0  4 ZH  ))?"6@ NNN?N pPH@___PPT9"@ E'6J (3J7$ (2 0F  `0P  4 ` 0P  4 ZX))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   4 Z$))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  4 Zt,))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B  4 Z ))?"6@ NNN?N pPH@___PPT9"@ E'6J E3*E1$ (2 0" 4 Z))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ d5. Past Continuous Tense 'DE'6J 'DE3*E1D3 fff! 4  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H 4 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +b  yqP D (  Dx D c $p0F    D s * 0  "P@08X D H`"))?"`` *f D Z# ))?"6@ NNN?N `  5 (2F  `0P  D ` 0P  D Z&))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   D Z\.))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  D Z<5))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B  D Z : ))?"6@ NNN?Np  =while(23 D Z> ))?"6@ NNN?N   =while(23" D ZD8))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ d5. Past Continuous Tense 'DE'6J 'DE3*E1D3 fff! D  `HE))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H D 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +"  "! W8!(  8x 8 c $P0F   ~ 8 s *P     8 HQ))?"``vnf___PPT9H@@@ 4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ~X-ffff f  ff0. ( 8 TR??"6?@`NNN?Np%j vnf___PPT9H@@@ 2 ( will + be A9D+ + ing )b F3F3F3 F 3F30 F  `0P 8 ` 0P 8 Z(a))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  8 Z`g))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " 8 Zhm))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   xR V8 #"PG x  48  `,} ))?"6@ NNN?N xR\TL___PPT9.&@ after(9/ 2   @` 58  `( ))?"6@ NNN?N` R\TL___PPT9.&@ &allCD ,EJ9 2 @` 68  `d ))?"6@ NNN?N ` R\TL___PPT9.&@ &from& toEF..%DI 2   @` 88  `@ ))?"6@ NNN?N x \TL___PPT9.&@ inAJ :6HF 2   @` 98  `䧸 ))?"6@ NNN?N`  \TL___PPT9.&@ by(-DHD 2   @` :8  `4 ))?"6@ NNN?N ` \TL___PPT9.&@ 0at9F/ DD2EF 2 @`B ;8  `o ))?"0@NNN?N x B <8 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N x B @8  `o ))?"0@NNN?NRxRB A8  `o ))?"0@NNN?N RB B8 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` ` RB C8 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N RB E8  `o ))?"0@NNN?Nx xR" S8 Z$))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ b6. Future Continuous Tense 'DE3*B(D 'DE3*E1D2fff W8  `<))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H 8 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +A   X P @ @ (  @x @ c $0F    @ s *L 0  "P@08X @ H,))?"`` *fF  `0P @ ` 0P @ Z,))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  @ Zb))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  @ Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "  @ Z))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ b6. Future Continuous Tense 'DE3*B(D 'DE3*E1D2fff  @  `t ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H @ 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B ++  **p kT*(  Tx T c $0F   ~ T s *    T Hx))?"``vnf___PPT9H@@@ 4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ~X-ffff f  ff0.  T T??"6?@`NNN?N \TL___PPT9.&@ B has / have 'D*51JA 'D+'D+ DDA9D+>" F3F3F3  T 0$p W  3I 2@ T 0*p W  3I 2@  T 0-p0W  * 2@F  `0P  T ` 0P  T Z/))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   T Z85))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " T Z4:))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    xn kT #"" xn V (T  `J ))?"6@ NNN?N . xP vnf___PPT9H@@@ 2never #(/'Kd &    2   @` &T  `U ))?"6@ NNN?N . P \TL___PPT9.&@ ,everAJ 'D#(/ F  @` $T  `x` ))?"6@ NNN?N. P \TL___PPT9.&@ 0yet-*I 'D"F F  @` T  `4b ))?"6@ NNN?N P xn D @` T  `u ))?"6@ NNN?N P n\TL___PPT9.&@ .already*E'E'K F  @` T  ` ))?"6@ NNN?NP n\TL___PPT9.&@ 2recently-/J+'K F  @` T  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N  x. \TL___PPT9.&@ &justAJ 'D*H F @`\ T  `4 ))?"6@ NNN?N  . xph___PPT9JB@@@ .forDE/) h&  6 @` T  `0 ))?"6@ NNN?N . \TL___PPT9.&@ 2sinceEF0 F @`B T  `o ))?"0@NNN?N x B T Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N. x. B T  `o ))?"0@NNN?NnxnB T  `o ))?"0@NNN?N nB T Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  nB T Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  nB T  `o ))?"0@NNN?Nx xnB %T Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NP xP " T Z))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ h7. Present Perfect Tense 'DE6'19 'D*'ED5#fff$ iT  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H T 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +G   ^ V  X (  Xx X c $p0F    X s *T 0  "P@08X X H))?"`` *fF  `0P X ` 0P X ZX))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  X Z`1))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " X ZD5))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "  X Zv))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ h7. Present Perfect Tense 'DE6'19 'D*'ED5#fff$  X  `n))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H X 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +$.  ;-3-*Z\,(  \x \ c $0F   ~ \ s *p0    \ 0` p0W  * 2@F  `0P  \ ` 0P  \ ZP ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   \ Z ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  \ Zl ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B " @ @ Y\ #"6* rrrrrrr 00  ' W\  `  ))?"6@ NNN?N @ Q a century    @`4 U\  `  ))?"6@ NNN?N@  ^he came& & & &     @`' J\  `l!  ))?"6@ NNN?N @  Q 3 minutes    @`$ H\  `1  ))?"6@ NNN?N@   NMonday  @`% E\  `;  ))?"6@ NNN?N @  Oan hour  @`' C\  `<  ))?"6@ NNN?N@    Q yesterday    @`( ?\  `LM  ))?"6@ NNN?N  @  R many hours    @`( =\  `V  ))?"6@ NNN?N@   R last night    @`8 :\  `4X  ))?"6@ NNN?N @M  b3 days/ 5 weeks / 4 months  @`> 8\  `lh  ))?"6@ NNN?N@  M  h last week/ last month/ last year!!  @`$ 5\  `\ Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N@ @ B D\ Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N@ @ B I\ Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N@ @ B V\ Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N@@" \ Z ))? 0 O Since & For(  f Z\  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H \ 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +    2d(  dx d c $X 0F   ~ d s *Ġ       d H ))?"``vnf___PPT9H@@@ 4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ~X-ffff f  ff0.  d T ??"6?@`NNN?Npj \TL___PPT9.&@ 4 had 'D*51JA 'D+'D+ DDA9D+>F3F3F3 d 0 p W  3I 2@ d 0 p W  3I 2@ d 0 p0W  * 2@F  `0P  d ` 0P  d Z ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   d Z ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  d Z ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B T    1d #"P  `   d  `  ))?"6@ NNN?N` c \TL___PPT9.&@ 8as soon asAJ 'D#(/ 2   @` d  `  ))?"6@ NNN?Nc ` \TL___PPT9.&@ 4which-*I 'D"F 2 @` d  `  ))?"6@ NNN?N` c \TL___PPT9.&@ 2beforeDE/) 2 @` d  `%  ))?"6@ NNN?N ` c \TL___PPT9.&@ 2afterEF0 2 @`B d  `o ))?"0@NNN?N  B d Z1 ))?"0@NNN?Nc c B d  `o ))?"0@NNN?NB d  `o ))?"0@NNN?N B d Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B d  `o ))?"0@NNN?N " d Z' ))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ h8. Past Perfect Tense 'DE'6J 'D*'ED5$fff% 2d  ` 1 ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H d 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +  , $  h (  h  h Z))?"6@`NNN?N x h c $D 0F    h  0G ?     "P@08X h Hh ))?"`` *fF  `0P h ` 0P h ZX))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  h Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " h Zd))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "  h Z))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ h8. Past Perfect Tense 'DE'6J 'D*'ED5$fff%  h  `q ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H h 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +E  \Tl(  lx l c $y 0F   ~ l s *z       l Ht{ ))?"``vnf___PPT9H@@@ 4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ~X-ffff f  ff0.  l T ??"6?@`NNN?Np`j \TL___PPT9.&@ D will + have 'D*51JA 'D+'D+ DDA9D+># F3F3F3  l 0 p W  3I 2@ l 0 p W  3I 2@ l 00 p0W  * 2@F  `0P  l ` 0P  l Z,~ ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   l ZЛ ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  l Z| ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B z| `   l #" P `    l  `@  ))?"6@ NNN?N0  \TL___PPT9.&@ (at9F/ 2 @` l  `  ))?"6@ NNN?N` 0 \TL___PPT9.&@ 0by(-DHD 2 @`B l  `o ))?"0@NNN?N`  B l  `o ))?"0@NNN?N`  B l  `o ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B l Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 0 B l  `o ))?"0@NNN?N  " l Z ))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ n9. Future Perfect Tense 'DE3*B(D 'D*'ED8%fff& l  `ث))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H l 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +M   d \  p (  px p c $ 0F    p s *  0   "P@08X p HP))?"`` *fF  `0P p ` 0P p Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  p Z ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B " p Z ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "  p Z))?`\TL___PPT9.&@ n9. Future Perfect Tense 'DE3*B(D 'D*'ED8%fff&  p  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H p 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +  td(  tx t c $ 0F   ~ t s *\       t H ))?"``vnf___PPT9H@@@ 4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ~X-ffff f  ff0.  t T ??"6?@`NNN?Np`Bj \TL___PPT9.&@ 8 has / have + been A9D++ ing>F3F3F3 t 0 p W  3I 2@ t 0 p W  3I 2@ t 0 p0W  * 2@F  `0P  t ` 0P  t Z\ ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   t Z ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  t Z ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B  `    t# #" P `    t  `!  ))?"6@ NNN?N0  \TL___PPT9.&@ .sinceEF0 2 @` t  `  ))?"6@ NNN?N` 0 \TL___PPT9.&@ 0forDE/) 2 @`B t  `o ))?"0@NNN?N`  B t  `o ))?"0@NNN?N`  B t  `o ))?"0@NNN?N` ` B t Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0 0 B t  `o ))?"0@NNN?N  X" t Z6 ))?`|t___PPT9VN@@@ B~10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense 'DE3*E1 'DE6'19 'D*'Eb@$&ff  fff>& t  `d> ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H t 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +      xl (  xx x c $&  x  `\u ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H x 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +       |K (  |x | c $ 0F    | s *l  0   "P@08X | Hl ))?"`` *f |  `,))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B " |  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B X"  | Z ))?`|t___PPT9VN@@@ B~10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense 'DE3*E1 'DE6'19 'D*'Eb@$&ff  fff>&   | Z  ))?"6@ NNN?N 0@ CPresent Perfect(2  |  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H | 0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +=   TL  (  x  c $ 0F     s * @P    "P@08X  H ))?"`` *f   ` ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    `x ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B     `( ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +5  LD0  (  x  c $4 0F     H| ))?"`` *fF  `0P  ` 0P  Z, ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B d    0X  ___PPT9@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ "#E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) Give Instructions %97'! *9DJE'* Mix the flour and the sugar. (Affirmative %+('*) Take two tablets every four hours. (Affirmative %+('*) Make Invitations 5J:) 'D/9HI Come in; make yourselves at home. (Affirmative %+('*) Please start; do not wait for me. (Negative FAJ) Tell someone what to do %.('1 4.5 E' 3JA9DG Open your book. (Affirmative %+('*) Do not forget to post the letter. (Negative FAJ) > " 2 " k "  " $ " i " 3 " Y "  "   3 3   $$((,,004488388 88<<3  3  3 3  $$((((3,,3,30/ $ P@08X    `p ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +e  |t@  (  x  c $Hd 0F     Hg ))?"`` *f   `i ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B "   `tP ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   0U  ~vn___PPT9PH@@@@@@@@@@  #E+D@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@) Give Warnings %97'! *-0J1'* Keep out. Danger. (Affirmative %+('*) Make Signs & Notices *CHJF %4'1'* H ED'-8'* Push. (Affirmative %+('*) Insert 2 X 50 SR. (Affirmative %+('*) Keep off the grass. (Affirmative %+('*) Make Requests *CHJF 'D7D( Please open the door. (Affirmative %+('*) " H " ' "  " 3 " l " ; " + "    4 3    $$((,,3,, ,,004444443 44 4488<<<<<<3 << <<3,    3     4 "$,$P@08X    `V ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +Y   p h P  (  x  c $ 0F     Hؓ ))?"`` *f   `H ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    `̜ ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B   0 F>6___PPT9 F " P@08X   BD@  @   */'O    ` ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +F  EE@ ;E(  x  c $T 0F     H ))?"`` *fF  `0P  ` 0P  Z@))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  ZĐ))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   00  F>6___PPT9 F " P@08X ; 08  #"2&PX08  P f  `  ))?"6@`NNN?N f 0  zYou should stop smoking.0    @` d  `8  ))?"6@`NNN?N`f \TL___PPT9.&@ DAdvice or opinion 'DF5J-) #H 'D1#J.#    @` c  `  ))?"6@ NNN?Nf `  B @`R `  `  ))?"6@ NNN?N 0  |He will visit us tomorrow.0    @` ^  `  ))?"6@ NNN?N` \TL___PPT9.&@ ZThe simple future tense. 5J:) 'DE3*B(D 'D(3J7..    @`$ ]  `D ))?"6@ NNN?N `  Nwill @` /  `l  ))?"6@ NNN?N 08 2I will travel when I like. We will do as you wish.J3      @` 0  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N` 8\TL___PPT9.&@ RDetermination or promise 'D*5EJE #H 'DH9/.*    @` 1  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N `8 B @`V 2  `) ))?"6@ NNN?N 0f  You should obey your teachers.0    @` 3  `x5 ))?"6@ NNN?N` f \TL___PPT9.&@ Duty 'DH',(.     @`& 4  `x6 ))?"6@ NNN?N `f  Pshould @`_ 5  `4H ))?"6@ NNN?N 0  'You shall be punished if you come late.0(    @` 6  `R ))?"6@ NNN?N` \TL___PPT9.&@ Threat *G/J/.     @` 7  `U ))?"6@ NNN?N`  > @`b 8  `D[ ))?"6@ NNN?N 0 *He does not want to obey me: but he shall.0+$    @` 9  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N` \TL___PPT9.&@ &Determination *5EJE.    @` :  `w ))?"6@ NNN?N` > @`P ;  `x ))?"6@ NNN?N <0 zYou shall take a reward.0    @` <  `\j ))?"6@ NNN?N`< \TL___PPT9.&@ Promise H9/2  B "  @`% =  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N<` Oshall @` >  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N 0<\TL___PPT9.&@ Example E+'D2   @`D ?  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N` <vnf___PPT9H@@@ *Expresses: *9(1 9F: \  B  B B0   @`: @  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N`<vnf___PPT9H@@@ .Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5)N B B0 @`B A  fo ))?"0@NNN?N0B B  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N<0<B C  `o ))?"0@NNN?N8`8B D  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N``f B E  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N  f B G  `o ))?"0@NNN?N<8B H  fo ))?"0@NNN?N<B I  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N`0B J  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N`0B L  f1 ))?"0@NNN?N`f 0f B M  fo ))?"0@NNN?N`808B W Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B m  f1 ))?"0@NNN?N`f ` B o  f1 ))?"0@NNN?N f B q  fo ))?"0@NNN?N0f 0 B F  fo ))?"0@NNN?N00f B r  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0 0 B t Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B n  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N` `8B p  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N 8B w Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B y  fo ))?"0@NNN?N0 08B _  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N` B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N ` B e  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N`    `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +A  5@-@P 4s?(  x  c $L0F     H))?"`` *fF  `0P  ` 0P  Z8))?"6@`NNN?N ` PaU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z`))?"6@`NNN?N`0PbU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  ZH))?"6@`NNN?N ` PcU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   0h D<4___PPT9 F " P@08XS5 0x r #"."PX0x [    ` ))?"6@`NNN?N 0B  !You must listen to your teachers.2"    @`    ` ))?"6@`NNN?N B \TL___PPT9.&@ "Necessity 'D61H1).      @`&    ` ))?"6@ NNN?N B  Pmust @`    ` ))?"6@ NNN?N B 0x IFaisal could not come to our dinner party. He had to stay home to study.0J,    @`,   `8$ ))?"6@ NNN?NB x\TL___PPT9.&@ nThe past form of must :past necessity 'D61H1) AJ 'DE'6J.8&   & @`(   `0& ))?"6@ NNN?NB x Rhad to @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N L 0  wFahad could drive his car a year ago. Ali is not in class today. He could be sick. Do not leave now. It could rain now.dx  9      @`p   `H ))?"6@ NNN?NL \TL___PPT9.&@ 6Past, present or future possibility 'D%EC'FJ) AJ 'DE'6J/ 'DE6'19 / 'DE3*B(DJ$(#  3'  $' @`'   `@4 ))?"6@ NNN?NL   Qcould @`T   `DZ ))?"6@ NNN?N 0L  ~I shall be able to help you.0    @`   `e ))?"6@ NNN?N L \TL___PPT9.&@ TAbility in the future 'DEB/1) 9DI 'DE3*B(D.+    @`=   `T ))?"6@ NNN?NL  gshall be able, will be able @`   `Xg ))?"6@ NNN?N r0 8He can do it carefully. He is able to solve the problem.J9      @`   `Ԅ ))?"6@ NNN?Nr \TL___PPT9.&@ Ability 'DEB/1)2 B B  @`8   ` ))?"6@ NNN?Nr bcan, am/is/are able to @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N <0r EI hoped that I might succeed. I thought that the weather might changeJF  $    @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N< r\TL___PPT9.&@ *Possibility 'D%EC'FJ)2  B B   @`'   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N<r Qmight @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N 0<\TL___PPT9.&@ Example E+'D2   @`D    ` ))?"6@ NNN?N <vnf___PPT9H@@@ *Expresses: *9(1 9F: \  B  B B0   @`: !  `0 ))?"6@ NNN?N<vnf___PPT9H@@@ .Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5)N B B0 @`B "  fo ))?"0@NNN?N0B #  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N<0<B $  `o ))?"0@NNN?NxxB %  `1 ))?"0@NNN?NxB &  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N  B '  `o ))?"0@NNN?N<xB (  fo ))?"0@NNN?N<B +  f1 ))?"0@NNN?N 0 B ,  fo ))?"0@NNN?Nx0xB - Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NL 0L B /  f1 ))?"0@NNN?N B B 0  fo ))?"0@NNN?N0 0B B 1  fo ))?"0@NNN?N00 B 2  `o ))?"0@NNN?N0B 0xB 3 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N B 0B B 5  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N B xB V Z1 ))?"0@NNN?Nr0rB [ Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N0B j Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  B m Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NB B B :  `1 ))?"0@NNN?NB B  s  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +$  ##` 9/#(  x  c $@0F     H[))?"`` *fF  `0P  ` 0P  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` P1U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0P2U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  ZP))?"6@`NNN?N ` P3U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   0 F>6___PPT9 F " P@08X 0w  8 #"P0w  t   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N r0w  <You ought to have studied. (You did not. That was a mistake)0=  +  @`\   ` ))?"6@ NNN?Nr w \TL___PPT9.&@ "Actions that were advisable in the past #-/'+ C'F EF 'DE3*-3F 9EDG' AJ 'DE'6J2N( %B B (% @`/   ` ))?"6@ NNN?Nrw  Y ought to have @`T   `) ))?"6@ NNN?N <0r ~You ought to help the poor. 0    @`   `4 ))?"6@ NNN?N< r\TL___PPT9.&@ Advice 'DF5J-)2 B B  @`*   `= ))?"6@ NNN?N<r Tought to   @`   `? ))?"6@ NNN?N 0<\TL___PPT9.&@ Example E+'D2   @`D   `U ))?"6@ NNN?N <vnf___PPT9H@@@ *Expresses: *9(1 9F: \  B  B B0   @`:   `b ))?"6@ NNN?N<vnf___PPT9H@@@ .Modals 'D#A9'D 'DF'B5)N B B0 @`B   fo ))?"0@NNN?N0B    `1 ))?"0@NNN?N<0<B !  `o ))?"0@NNN?Nw w B "  `1 ))?"0@NNN?Nw B #  `1 ))?"0@NNN?N  w B $  `o ))?"0@NNN?N<w B %  fo ))?"0@NNN?N<B '  fo ))?"0@NNN?Nw 0w B / Z1 ))?"0@NNN?Nr0rB +  fo ))?"0@NNN?N00w  9  `e))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +X5  o4g4p <3(  x  c $\u0F   F  `0P  ` 0P  Ztw))?"6@`NNN?N ` P4U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z}))?"6@`NNN?N`0P5U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  ZY))?"6@`NNN?N ` P6U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   0܃ F>6___PPT9 F " P@08XC*    #"."PPPPP   ̰ <> ?@   @  @` ʰ <  ? @   @  @` Ȱ <(  ?"` @  fMight I succeed?$   @` ư <  ?"`@  tI might not succeed..    @` İ <(  ?"`@   pI might succeed..    @`  < ?   @  @`  <$ ?   @  @`  < ?  b May I sleep?$    @`  < ?  pI may not sleep..    @`  < ?   l I may sleep..     @`  < ?  pNo, he will not..    @`  < ?   m Yes, he will..    @`  < ?   dWill he leave?$   @` ~ <D  ?  rHe will not leave..    @` | < ?  nHe will leave..    @` y <('  ?"`P tNo, they should not..     @` w <1  ?"` P qYes, they should..     @` u <   ?"` P  jShould they eat now?$   @` s <F  ?"`P  xThey should not eat now..    @` q <HQ  ?"`P tThey should eat now..    @` n <[ ? @  qNo, he would not..    @` l <e ? @  nYes, he would..    @` j <o ? @  eWould he leave?$   @` h <_ ? @  uHe would not succeed..    @` f < ? @  qHe would succeed..    @` D <| ?  P\TL___PPT9.&@ Question %+('*> 333  @` ? <8 ? `P i Affirmative,  33 @` = < ? `\TL___PPT9.&@ 6Short Answers %,'('* E.*51)>3 33  @` 2 < ? P\TL___PPT9.&@ Negative FAJ>  333  @`   <, ?`P XNegative  3 @` # <, ?P\TL___PPT9.&@ "Affirmative %+('*> 333  @`fB $ 6o ?`B & 01 ?PPfB ' 6o ?  `B ) 01 ? B 3 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  B E Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  B X Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N` `B _ 01 ? ``B g Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N@ @ B r Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NB } Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  `B  0o ?P`B  0o ?PfB ( 6o ?PfB * 6o ?PfB  6o ? B Ű Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  `B Ѱ 0o ?@  fB  6o ?@ fB Ұ 6o ?     `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +4  33 :E:3(  x  c $0F      `Q))?"6@`NNN?N` P7U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B "   `$))?"6@`NNN?N` P9U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   0 F>6___PPT9 F " P@08X+ " D #"."PPPPP"    <( ?   oNo, I must not..    @`   < ?   l Yes, I must..     @`   <  ?"`  fMust you go now?$   @`   <P  ?"`  tYou must not go now..    @`   <D)  ?"`   pYou must go now..    @`  <4 ? " pNo, I ought not..    @`  <0@ ? " Yes, I ought to.F      @`  < L ? " Ought you to help them?<     @`  <X ? " You ought not to help them.:     @`  <@b ? " xYou ought to help them..    @`  <[ ?  No, he could not.F      @`  <x ?   nYes, he could..    @`  <ā ?   dCould he talk?$   @`  <|g ?  He could not talk.F      @`  <$ ?  nHe could talk..    @`   <ؤ  ?"`P No, you can not.F      @`  <  ?"` P m Yes, you can..     @`  <  ?"` P  b Can I do it?$    @`  <X  ?"`P  pI can not do it..    @`  <\  ?"`P l I can do it..     @`  < ?   qNo, he could not..    @`  < ?   oYes, you could..     @`  < ?  tCould we have a test tomorrow?$   @`   <\ ?  "We could not have a test tomorrow..#    @` ! < ?   ~We could have a test tomorrow..    @` " <T  ?  P\TL___PPT9.&@ Question %+('*> 333  @` # < ? `P i Affirmative,  33 @` $ <# ? `\TL___PPT9.&@ 6Short Answers %,'('* E.*51)>3 33  @` % <- ? P\TL___PPT9.&@ Negative FAJ>  333  @` & <8 ?`P XNegative  3 @` ' </ ?P\TL___PPT9.&@ "Affirmative %+('*> 333  @`fB ( 6o ?`B ) 01 ?PPfB * 6o ?""`B + 01 ?"B , Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  "B - Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  "B . Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N`"`B / 01 ? ``B 0 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  B 1 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NB 2 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  `B 3 0o ?P`B 4 0o ?PfB 5 6o ?PfB 6 6o ?PfB 7 6o ?"B 8 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  `B 9 0o ?  fB : 6o ? fB ; 6o ? " E  `G))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +  ` "Q(  x  c $,;0F     s *`   "P@08X  Hw))?"``vnf___PPT9H@@@ 4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ~X-ffff f  ff0. %  S ~t?))?"6?@`NNN?NP  9 erF3    `e))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B     ` =))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z))?p`\TL___PPT9.&@ |1. Comparing Short Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'* 'DB5J1)D?%fff&9  S ~ܔ?))?"6?@`NNN?NP[ M than,F3F3B   fD))?"0@NNN?N 00 B   fD))?"0@NNN?Np 00 p B   fD))?"0@NNN?N00 B   fD))?"0@NNN?N00 $  S ~t?))?"6?@`NNN?N P  8 eF3$  S ~?))?"6?@`NNN?N P  8 rF3%  S ~T?))?"6?@`NNN?N P-  9 erF3$  S ~4?))?"6?@`NNN?N   8 yF3$   S ~?))?"6?@`NNN?N /  8 yF3$ ! S ~t?))?"6?@`NNN?N  8 iF3 "  `P))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +=  TLp (    s *  "P@08X  HT))?"``vnf___PPT9H@@@ 4. Present Continuous Tense 'DE6'19 'DE3*E1 ~X-ffff f  ff0. &  S ~?))?"6?@`NNN?N@ : theF3F  `0P   ` 0P   Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    ZV))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "   ZXN))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B 8  S ~8V?))?"6?@`NNN?N@ L est,F3F3B   fD))?"0@NNN?N 00  8 p  p "   Z))?p`\TL___PPT9.&@ |1. Comparing Short Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'* 'DB5J1)D?%fff&,  S ~(?))?"6?@`NNN?NP   8 eF3,  S ~?))?"6?@`NNN?N c  8 eF38 0   ` 0 B   fD))?"0@NNN?N0 0 .  S ~`?))?"6?@`NNN?N   : estF3,  S ~?))?"6?@`NNN?NP   8 yF3,  S ~D?))?"6?@`NNN?N /  8 yF3,  S ~?))?"6?@`NNN?NP  8 iF3   `())?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   NL2J  ?0F   H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +$  ## :0 4#(    s *x  "P@08X  H1))?"`` *fF  `0P  ` 0P  Zl5))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Zl:))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "   Z*))?"6@`NNN?N ` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B +  c .?))?"6?@`NNN?N }  9 erF3+  c 8-?))?"6?@`NNN?N ~  9estF3: pp  4 #"pp   1  `? ))?"6@`NNN?N@ 0  \TL___PPT9.&@ 4correct5-J- 2    @` /  `; ))?"6@`NNN?Np0 @ \TL___PPT9.&@ :dangerous.71 2      @`   `O ))?"6@ NNN?N@  \TL___PPT9.&@ 4FluentA5J- 2    @`   `` ))?"6@ NNN?Np @ \TL___PPT9.&@ <ImportantEGE 2      @`   `$fff%& 5 S ~~?))?"6?@`NNN?Np i0  :thanF3& 6 S ~8?))?"6?@`NNN?Np p 0  :moreF3 7  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  : N`J  ?0F   H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +e  | t   (    s *  "P@08X  H))?"`` *f   `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    `))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "   ` ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "  Z))?p`\TL___PPT9.&@ z2. Comparing Long Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'* 'D7HJD)D>$fff%*  S ~d'?))?"6?@`NNN?N >the most F3   `())?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    NuJ  ?0F   H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +i9  8x8 .]8(    s *  "P@08X  H())?"`` *f   `x))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B "   `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "   Z))?p`\TL___PPT9.&@ z2. Comparing Long Adjectives EB'1F) 'D5A'* 'D7HJD)D>$fff%4, U  X #"*  8 G  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N U  b farther than$ 3 @`5 E  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N   _ less than$ 3 @`5 C  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N _   _ more than$ 3 @`6 A  ` ))?"6@ NNN?N _  ` worse than$ 3 @`7 ?  `, ))?"6@ NNN?N   a better than$ 3 @` =  `% ))?"6@ NNN?N PH@___PPT9"@  EB'1F) (JF #+FJF$ @`4 6  `. ))?"6@ NNN?N  ^the best$ 3 @`" 4  `H8 ))?"6@ NNN?N   Lgood @` 2  `A ))?"6@ NNN?N  PH@___PPT9"@ x,J/$   @`4 /  `HL ))?"6@`NNN?N_   ^the most$ 3 @`' -  `hC ))?"6@`NNN?N _  Q many much   @` +  `L_ ))?"6@`NNN?N_  PH@___PPT9"@ DC+J1 (DDE9/H/) C+J1 (D:J1 'DE9/H/)$#"  " @`5 )  `2 ))?"6@`NNN?N   _ the least$ 3 @`$ '  `tq ))?"6@`NNN?N   Nlittle @` %  `| ))?"6@`NNN?N  PH@___PPT9"@ &BDJD (D:J1 'DE9/H/)$   @`5    ` ))?"6@ NNN?N _  _ the worst$ 3 @`!    ` ))?"6@ NNN?N  _  Kbad @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N _ PH@___PPT9"@ x3J&$   @`8   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N U  b the farthest$  3 @`!   `L ))?"6@ NNN?N  U  Kfar @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N U PH@___PPT9"@ z(9J/$   @`   `( ))?"6@ NNN?NPH@___PPT9"@ 0EB'1F) (JF #C+1 EF #+FJF$ @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N  PH@___PPT9"@ | 'D5A)$ @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N PH@___PPT9"@ ~ 'DE9FI$ @`B   `o ))?"0@NNN?NB  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NB   `o ))?"0@NNN?NU U B   `o ))?"0@NNN?NU B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  U B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  U B   `o ))?"0@NNN?NU B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N_ _ B & Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  B , Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  B 3 Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  B > Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NU  Y  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B  \ N(J  ?0F    ] Z8j ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +     3p (  x  c $0F     s * 0  "P@08X   `i))?"6@`NNN?N` Px U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B " 0 Zx))? `0\TL___PPT9.&@ @as& & ..as E+DG E+D (('D6(7)6!fff" 1 ZD))? ` \TL___PPT9.&@ >not as& & ..as DJ3 E+DG E+D6 f ff  2  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B " 3 Zq ))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +     h (  x  c $t0F     s *!@  "P@08X  Hh5))?"`` *f   `,9))?"6@`NNN?N` P~ U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    `))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B $   S ~?))?"6?@`NNN?N_`l  8lyF3$   S ~(?))?"6?@`NNN?N p  8lyF3B    fD))?"0@NNN?N0 P0 B    fD))?"0@NNN?N0 P0 B   fD))?"0@NNN?N p B   fD))?"0@NNN?N @    `?))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +      T (  x  c $pK0F     s *@o@  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B     `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +   !r(  x  c $y0F     s *P@0  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Z,))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Zd))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z\E))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B $  S ~@?))?"6?@`NNN?N Z  8lyF3$   S ~J?))?"6?@`NNN?N :y  8lyF3  p     #"   :      ` ))?"6@`NNN?N@ U  \TL___PPT9.&@ Nyearly3FHJ'K 2(!! @`    `[ ))?"6@`NNN?NpU @ \TL___PPT9.&@ Jmonthly4G1J'K 2& @`   ` ))?"6@ NNN?N@  U \TL___PPT9.&@ Pweekly#3(H9J'K 2)"" @`   `p ))?"6@ NNN?Np @ U \TL___PPT9.&@ RdailyJHEJ'K 2*$$ @`B   `o ))?"0@NNN?Np  B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NpU U B   `o ))?"0@NNN?Np  B   `o ))?"0@NNN?Np p B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N@  @ B   `o ))?"0@NNN?N   !  `))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +{"  !! 0"!(  x  c $0F     s *<  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Zp ))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   pP  / #"" pP  v &  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N p xph___PPT9JB@@@ JRarelyF'/1'K ,/'K L&  "    P @` $  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N \TL___PPT9.&@ @seldomF'/1'K 2!    @` !  ` ))?"6@`NNN?N p\TL___PPT9.&@ Dsometimes#-J'F'K 2#      @`   `  ))?"6@`NNN?N \TL___PPT9.&@ >usually9'/) 2     @`    ` ))?"6@ NNN?N pP \TL___PPT9.&@ <OccasionallyEF -J D".1 2      @`    `* ))?"6@ NNN?N P \TL___PPT9.&@ BNever#(/'K 2"    @`     `2 ))?"6@ NNN?N p\TL___PPT9.&@ Joften:'D('K 2&     @`   `> ))?"6@ NNN?N  \TL___PPT9.&@ @always/'&E'K 2!    @`B   `o ))?"0@NNN?N p B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NpB   `o ))?"0@NNN?NP pP B   `o ))?"0@NNN?N P B  Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N  P B   `o ))?"0@NNN?Np pP B   Z1 ))?"0@NNN?NpB % Z1 ))?"0@NNN?N p  0  `(A))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +     0 T (  x  c $TL0F     s *@  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Z|h))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   ZH))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    `#))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +     @ T (  x  c $t0F     s *{@  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Z$))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Zi))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    `n))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +     `  T (  x  c $0F     s *@  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Zԗ))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  ZD))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B     ``))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +  p  9(  x  c $0F     s *@  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Zt))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B %  S ~h?))?"6?@`NNN?N -  9as ifD3&   S ~Ķ?))?"6?@`NNN?N pC) :willF3'   S ~4?))?"6?@`NNN?N @ ;wouldF3%   S ~,v?))?"6?@`NNN?N` @8  9wasF3&   S ~?))?"6?@`NNN?N` @p  :wereF3    `x))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +     T (  x  c $0F     s *@0  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  ZE))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   ZF))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  ZLM))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    `\K))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +(  ? 7   (  x  c $T60F     s *<@  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Z|E))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Z!))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z ))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B   Th??"6?@`NNN?N@ :\TL___PPT9.&@ so + adverb + that>F3F3F3   TX??"6?@`NNN?N@:\TL___PPT9.&@ such + noun+ that> F3F3F3     `J))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +     T (  x  c $]0F     s *pc@  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Zd8))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  Z=))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    `=))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +     T (  x  c $0F     s *@  "P@08XF  `0P  ` 0P  Z))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B   Zx))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B "  ZQ))?"6@`NNN?N ` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    `Pr))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +W   n f  (  x  c $س0F     s *h@  "P@08X   `c))?"6@`NNN?N` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B "   `[))?"6@`NNN?N` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B    `\))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    Z ))?"6@`NNN?N`0PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +E   \ T   (  x  c $0F     s *0  "P@08X   `P))?"6@`NNN?N` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B "   `))?"6@`NNN?N` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D3'(B&B B "  Zܦ))? `0~v___PPT9XP@@@@ Bas& & ..as E+DG E+D [('D6(7 ]f"f f$f  f$f$f*  "   ZD))? ` \TL___PPT9.&@ >not as& & ..as DJ3 E+DG E+D6 f ff     `\))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +=   TL  (  x  c $0F     s *8@  "P@08X  H!))?"`` *f   `%))?"6@`NNN?N` P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B    `H))?"6@`NNN?N`0P U 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ j 'D*'DJ&B B     `d))?"6@`NNN?N` PU 0U 0H@___PPT9"@ 29H/) %DI 'DB'&E) 'D1&J3J)&B B H  0޽h ? fff___PPT10i.>,(+D=' = @B +  /' (  x  c $50F     s *|;  "P@08X  HE))?"`` *fF  `0P  ` 0P  Z$M))?"6@`NNN?N ` P